1st Edition

# Statistics Translated A Step-by-Step Guide to Analyzing and Interpreting Data

By

## Steven R. Terrell

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ISBN 9781462503216
Published May 27, 2012 by Guilford Press
409 Pages

USD \$119.00

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## Book Description

Written in a humorous and encouraging style, this text shows how the most common statistical tools can be used to answer interesting real-world questions, presented as mysteries to be solved. Engaging research examples lead the reader through a series of six steps, from identifying a researchable problem to stating a hypothesis, identifying independent and dependent variables, and selecting and interpreting appropriate statistical tests. All techniques are demonstrated both manually and with the help of SPSS software. The book provides students and others who may need to read and interpret statistically based research with the essential knowledge and skills needed to make decisions based on data.

User-Friendly Features
*Checklists of key words and formulas in every chapter.
*Examples of SPSS screenshots used for analyzing data.
*Cautionary notes plus "Putting It All Together" section recaps.
*End-of-chapter self-quizzes (with full answers and explanations).
*Glossary of terms.

Introduction: You Do Not Need to be a Statistician to Understand Statistics!
A Little Background
Many Students Don’t Know What They’re Getting Into
A Few Simple Steps
Summary
Do You Understand These Key Words and Phrases?
1. Identifying a Research Problem and Stating Hypotheses
Step 1: Identify a Problem That Can Be Investigated Using Inferential Statistics
Step 2: State a Hypothesis about the Problem You Are Investigating
Do You Understand These Key Words and Phrases?
Quiz Time!
2. Identifying the Independent and Dependent Variables in a Hypothesis
Step 3: Be Able to Identify the Independent Variable(s) and the Levels of the Independent Variable(s) in Your Hypothesis
Step 4: Be Able to Identify and Statistically Describe the Dependent Variable(s) in Your Hypothesis
Do You Understand These Key Words and Phrases?
Do You Understand These Formulas?
Quiz Time!
3. Measures of Dispersion and Measures of Relative Standing
Measures of Dispersion
Measures of Relative Standing
Summary of the Measures of Dispersion and Measures of Relative Standing
Do You Understand These Key Words and Phrases?
Do You Understand These Formulas?
Quiz Time!
4. Graphically Describing the Dependent Variable
Graphical Descriptive Statistics
The Normal Distribution
Do You Understand These Key Words and Phrases?
Quiz Time!
5. Choosing the Right Statistical Test
The Very Basics
How Are We Doing So Far?
Estimating Population Parameters Using Confidence Intervals
Predicting a Population Parameter Based on a Sample Statistic Using Confidence Intervals
Testing Hypotheses about a Population Parameter Based on a Sample Statistic
Testing a One-Tailed Hypothesis
Testing a One-Tailed "Less Than" Hypothesis
Summarizing What We Just Said
Be Careful When Changing Your Alpha Values
The Heart of Inferential Statistics
Probability Values
Step 5 Summary of Choosing the Right Statistical Test
Do You Understand These Formulas and Symbols?
Quiz Time!
6. The One-Sample t-Test
Welcome to the Guinness Breweries
The t Distribution
Let’s Look at a Directional Hypothesis
One More Time
Let’s Use the Six-Step Model
Summary of the One-Sample t-Test
Do You Understand These Key Words and Phrases?
Do You Know These Formulas?
Quiz Time!
7. The Independent-Sample t-Test
If We Have Samples from Two Independent Populations, How Do We Know If They Are Significantly Different from One Another?
Putting the Independent-Sample t-Test to Work
Summary of the Independent-Sample t-Test
Do You Understand These Key Words and Phrases?
Do You Understand These Formulas?
Quiz Time!
8. The Dependent-Sample t-Test
That’s Great, But How Do We Test Our Hypothesis?
Independence versus Dependence
Testing a Two-Tailed Hypothesis
Let’s Move Forward and Use Our Six-Step Model
The Case of the Unexcused Students
The Case of Never Saying Never
Summary of the Dependent Sample t-Test
Do You Understand These Key Words and Phrases?
Do You Understand These Formulas?
Quiz Time!
9. The Analysis of Variance
Understanding the ANOVA
The Different Types of ANOVAs
Assumptions of the ANOVA
Calculating the ANOVA
The Factorial ANOVA
Interpreting the Interaction p Value
Summary of the ANOVA
Do You Understand These Key Words and Phrases?
Do You Understand These Formulas?
Quiz Time!
10. The Chi-Square Tests
The One-Way Chi-Square Test
The Factorial Chi-Square Test (the Chi-Square Test of Independence)
Computing the Chi-Square Statistic
The Chi-Square Test of Independence
Computing Chi-square for the Test of Independence
Post-Hoc Tests Following the Chi-Square
Summary of the Chi-Square Tests
Do You Understand These Key Words and Phrases?
Do You Understand These Formulas?
Quiz Time!
11. The Correlational Procedures
Understanding the Idea of Correlations
Interpreting Pearson’s r
A Nonparametric Correlational Procedure
Linear Regression
Summary of the Correlational Procedures
Do You Understand These Key Words and Phrases?
Do You Understand These Formulas?
Quiz Time!
Conclusion. Have We Accomplished What We Set Out to Do?
Statistics in a New Light
A Limited Set of Statistical Techniques
The Use of Statistical Software Packages
A Straightforward Approach
Appendix A: Area Under the Normal Curve Table (Critical Values of z)
Appendix B. Critical Values of t
Appendix C. Critical Values of F When Alpha = .01
Appendix D. Critical Values of F When Alpha = .-05
Appendix E. Critical Values of Chi-Square
Appendix F. Critical Values of F When Alpha = .10
Appendix G. Selecting the Right Statistical Test
Glossary

...

## Author(s)

### Biography

Steven R. Terrell, PhD, is Professor in the Graduate School of Computer and Information Sciences at Nova Southeastern University, where he teaches quantitative and qualitative research methods. He is the author of over 100 journal articles and presentations focusing primarily on student motivation and attrition at all levels of education. Dr. Terrell is active in the American Psychological Association and the American Counseling Association, and recently finished serving as the President of the American Educational Research Association’s Online Teaching and Learning Special Interest Group.

## Reviews

"Bravo to Terrell for creating an introduction to statistics that is friendly, conversational, and understandable. His focus on the most frequently used statistical analyses, vocabulary, and methods is absolutely what students need. Terrell offers hundreds of authentic and timely research examples and case studies, leading readers through the research process in a supportive and interactive manner. I applaud the sections with key words, formulas to know, and self-quizzes. This is an excellent text for beginners in a quantitative research class or general introduction to research, such as a master's-level Introduction to Educational Research course. It is also useful for early-career academics writing their beginning journal articles, or for experienced faculty members to use as a terrific reference source."--Lynne Schrum, PhD, Dean, College of Education and Human Services, West Virginia University

"The readability of this book is a definite plus; it will be easily accessible to advanced undergraduates and graduate students. Specialized vocabulary is defined and used in context, and concepts are clearly explained. I like how the end-of-chapter quizzes require students to integrate concepts highlighted in a given chapter with relevant information from previous chapters. The graphics visually build statistical concepts on one another--I particularly like the continued use of the sample distributions and how they are tied to use of normal curve assumptions."--Chris Ohana, PhD, Science, Mathematics, and Technology Education Program, Western Washington University

"I applaud the author for linking statistical reasoning to a problem-oriented framework and for including a discussion of how to identify a researchable problem and frame research questions. These are serious omissions in many texts. The book is well situated to inform upper-level undergraduate and graduate students pursuing practitioner-related degrees. It does a good job of laying out a framework for inquiry and aligning statistical reasoning and tools with this framework. It is written for an audience who may do some basic statistical calculations and analysis, but who primarily will be consumers of statistics and quantitative research. I will recommend this text to colleagues who teach statistics or more general research methods courses for this audience."--Tammy Kolbe, EdD, Center for Education Policy Analysis, Neag School of Education, University of Connecticut

"Terrell sees the application of statistics as useful for answering all sorts of interesting academic and real-life questions. His explanations reveal the mysteries behind inferential statistics as he describes how to think statistically. Readers will discover the connections among the hypothesis, dependent measures, selection of appropriate inferential statistical analysis procedures, and how to interpret the evidence. The detailed, step-by-step directions on how to conduct statistical tests using SPSS are a plus; Terrell teaches both theory and practice."--Dave Edyburn, PhD, Director of Research, School of Education, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

"This book uses interesting examples and demonstrations to explain every aspect of the data-analytic process, from developing a sound hypothesis and selecting the appropriate analysis to understanding what the results actually mean. It is easy to understand, surprisingly practical, and comprehensive. Most important, Terrell directly addresses the most common analysis question that I hear from my own students: 'How do I know which statistical analysis to use?' This is the kind of text that students will keep and refer back to repeatedly during subsequent courses."--Matthew K. Burns, PhD, Department of Special Education, University of Missouri–Columbia

"One of the best things about Terrell's book is that it makes clear just how easy and intuitive statistics is. It does a better job than other available texts of expressing the core ideas through words, rather than numbers."--W. Val Larsen, PhD, Department of Marketing, James Madison University
"Compared to other available introductory textbooks, Terrell's is among the easiest to read and understand. The material is presented well and I like that it is broken up into small parts. Research methods and data collection techniques are integrated effectively."--Brian L. Withrow, PhD, Department of Criminal Justice, Texas State University-San Marcos

"Terrell makes it clear that his goal is to decrease students’ fear of statistics--and he succeeds beautifully. This is one statistics text that students will want to keep on their bookshelves rather than sell at the end of the semester. Rather than trying to cover every possible statistical procedure, Terrell wisely decided to focus on the subset of procedures that practitioners in education will be using 90% of the time. The book’s practical focus on most-used statistics, as well its informal style and systematic approach, make it a unique and valuable learning tool. Instructors will love using a text that is so easy to read and understand. In addition to course use, I will recommend this book to my doctoral students who are preparing dissertation research proposals. It will help relieve their anxiety about statistical analyses and provide good, reliable information that they can readily apply."--M. D. Roblyer, PhD, Adjunct Professor of Instructional Technology and Distance Education, Nova Southeastern University

"The author's approach is friendly and gentle. This is clearly a textbook for students who have not studied statistics before and who may even be phobic about mathematics. The four-step checklist for a well-stated hypothesis will be helpful to students and there is an excellent discussion of sampling error. The examples are great--well chosen and well used."--Adam Thrasher, PhD, Department of Health and Human Performance, University of Houston

"This is the textbook I wish I had written--it's relaxed, it speaks to you, it informs you, and at times, it even entertains."--Todd D. Little, PhD, Department of Psychology, University of Kansas

"A good index, a glossary of technical terms, appendixes containing statistical tables, useful end-of-chapter summaries, and full answers to all problems are attractive features. The author succeeds in illustrating the importance of statistical techniques for answering all sorts of questions arising in numerous real-life situations. An excellent text for beginners. Highly recommended. Lower-division graduates through professionals in social science or education research."--Choice Reviews, 11/1/2012

“A step-by-step practical guide for interpreting research data that acknowledges the role of most students as ‘consumers of statistics rather than statisticians’….Dr. Terrell describes a simple six-step approach that can be used to help select appropriate statistical tools….The book could be used as a resource manual for the student who is seeking a plain and simple explanation of terms and concepts in statistics; but even more beneficial, the eleven chapters are organized to serve as a core textbook for most introductory courses on quantitative and qualitative research methods. Each chapter contains pedagogical features….Provides a straight-forward, no-nonsense six-step approach for interpreting and presenting research data that will stick with ‘consumers’ of statistics long after they finish reading it.”--Internet and Higher Education, 10/1/2013