This book is the third publication from the Eurogang Network, a cross-national collaboration of researchers (from both North America and Europe) devoted to comparative and multi-national research on youth gangs. It provides a unique insight into the influence of migration on local gang formation and development, paying particular attention to the importance of ethnicity. The book also explores the challenges that migration and ethnicity pose for responding effectively to the growth of such gangs, particularly in areas where public discourse on such issues is restricted.
Chapters in the book are concerned to address both situations where there have been longstanding problems with street gangs as well as areas where such issues have just started to emerge. A variety of different research traditions and approaches are represented, including ethnographic methods, self-report surveys and interviews, official records data and victim interviews.
It will be essential reading for anybody interested in the phenomenon of street and youth gangs.
Foreword, Malcolm W. Klein (University of Southern California) Part I: Introduction and methods 1. Introduction, Frank van Gemert (VU University, Amsterdam), Inger-Lise Lien (Norwegian Center for Violence and Traumatic Stress Studies) and Dana Peterson (University at Albany, State University New York) 2. Migrant groups and gang activity: a contrast between Europe and the USA, Frank van Gemert (VU University, Amsterdam) and Scott Decker (Arizona State University) 3. Dangers and problems of doing 'gang' research in the UK, Judith Aldridge (University of Manchester), Juanjo Medina (University of Manchester) and Robert Ralphs (University of Manchester) Part II: Migration and street gangs 4. Mexican migrants in gangs: a second-generation history, James Diego Vigil (University of California) 5. Latin Kings in Barcelona, Carles Feixa (University of Barcelona), Noemí Canelles (University Autonoma de Barcelona), Laura Porzio, Carolina Recio and Luca Giliberti (University Autonoma de Barcelona) 6. Gangs, migration and conflict: Thrasher's theme in The Netherlands, Frank van Gemert (VU University, Amsterdam) and Jantien Stuifbergen (VU University, Amsterdam) 7. Origins and developments of racist skinheads in Moscow, Alexander Shashkin (Kazan State Technological University, Russia) Part III: Ethnicity and street gangs 8. The role of race and ethnicity in gang membership, Finn-Aage Esbensen (University of Missouri, St Louis), Bradley T. Brick (University of Missouri, St Louis), Chris Melde (Michigan State University), Karin Tusinski (University of Missouri, St Louis) and Terrance J. Taylor (University of Missouri, St Louis) 9. Weapons are for wimps: the social dynamics of ethnicity and violence in Australian gangs, Rob White (University of Tasmania) 10. Ethnicity and juvenile street gangs in France, Coralie Fiori-Khayat (Faculte Libre de Droit et ECO) 11. Migration background, group affiliation and delinquency among endangered youths in a south-west German city, Hans-Jürgen Kerner (University of Tuebingen), Kerstin Reich (University of Tuebingen), Marc Coester (University of Tuebingen) and Elmar G. M. Weitekamp (University of Tuebingen) 12. Respect, friendship, and racial injustice: justifying gang membership in a Canadian city, Scot Wortley (University of Toronto) and Julian Tanner (University of Toronto) Part IV: Issues and challenges of migration and ethnicity in dealing with youth gangs 13. An interactive construction of gangs and ethnicity: the role of school segregation in France, Eric Debarbieux (European Observatory of Violence in Schools) and Catherine Blaya (European Observatory of Violence in Schools) 14. 'Nemesis' and the Achilles heel of Pakistani gangs in Norway, Inger-Lise Lien (Norwegian Center for Violence and Traumatic Stress Studies) 15. Wolves and sheepdogs: on migration, ethnic relations and gang-police interaction in Sweden, Micael Björk (Goteborg University) 16. Concluding remarks: the roles of migration and ethnicity in street gang formation, involvement and response, Dana Peterson (University at Albany, State University New York), Inger-Lise Lien (Norwegian Center for Violence and Traumatic Stress Studies) and Frank van Gemert (VU University, Amsterdam)