Subsurface Drainage of Valley Bottom Irrigated Rice Schemes in Tropical Savannah: Case Studies of Tiefora and Moussodougou in Burkina Faso, 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

Subsurface Drainage of Valley Bottom Irrigated Rice Schemes in Tropical Savannah

Case Studies of Tiefora and Moussodougou in Burkina Faso, 1st Edition

By Amadou Keita

CRC Press

222 pages

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pub: 2015-10-21
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This study was built to investigate the impact of subsurface drainage on iron toxicity in Tropical Savannah irrigated rice valley bottoms. The research leaned upon two complementary approaches: field investigations and designed experiments. Important results, covering several fields, where achieved. For example, It appeared that single-season irrigation schemes present higher iron toxicity and acidity risks than double-season ones – 750 up to 1800 mg/l of Fe2+ higher in the single-season scheme of Moussodougou than in the double-season scheme of Tiefora. Furthermore, a statistical analysis of flow time series (ARIMA model) data was performed. It showed that with a simple water level measurement probe installed at the main gate of the scheme, it becomes possible not only to quantify irrigation water consumption, but also to diagnose farmers' irrigation schedule, providing them a means to defuse potential conflicts due to inequity in water distribution. Finally, it was shown that subsurface drainage increases ferrous iron concentration in hematite dominant soils soil – from 935 mg/l to more than 1106 mg/l in the case of the soil of Moussodougou - but also fortunately alleviate soil acidity – from pH 5.6 to 7.3 in Moussodougou. This effect will eventually reduce ferrous iron intake by rice roots, alleviating toxicity.

Table of Contents

1. Introduction

1.1. Background and Objectives

1.1.1. Problem Statement

1.1.2. Research Questions

1.1.3. Research Objectives

1.1.4. Expected Results

1.2. Scope

1.3. Structure of the Thesis

2. Literature Review

2.1. Tropical Savannah in Africa

2.2. Soil Genesis

2.3. The Prominence of Iron and Clay

2.4. Differences between Valley Bottom and Upland Soils

2.5. Iron Toxicity

2.6. Sulphate-Reducing Bacteria in Soils

2.6.1. The Flooded Rice Ecosystem

2.6.2. Iron and Sulphate Reducing Bacteria

2.6.3. The Bacteria Against Nematodes

2.6.4. The Reduction Processes

2.7. Subsurface Drainage

2.8. Concluding Remarks and Knowledge Gaps

3. Material and Methods

3.1. The Two Study Areas

3.2. The Site of Tiefora

3.2.1. Geographic Location

3.2.2. Population

3.2.3. Climate

3.2.4. The Dam

3.2.5. The Valley Bottem Irrigation Scheme

3.2.6. Topography and Valley History

3.2.7. The Pedology and the Reasons of Choosing Plain III

3.2.8. The Problems

3.3. The Site of Moussodougou

3.3.1. Location and Activities

3.3.2. The Problems

3.4. Project Components

3.4.1. First Component

3.4.2. Second Component

4. Irrigation Systems Prediagnoses and Update

4.1. Diagnosing and Mapping Tiefora Valley Bottom

4.2. Lessons from Valley Bottom Irrigated Rice Fields of Valley du Kou

4.3. Diagnosing and Mapping Moussodougou Valley Bottom

5. Clay and Ferrous Iron Stratifications

5.1. Soil Sampling and Measurements

5.2. Statistical Analyses

5.3. Clay Stratification Occurence

5.4. Ferrous Iron Concentration in the Rootzone

5.5. Conclusions

6. Higher Iron Toxicity Risk in Single-Season Irrigation

6.1. Soil Sampling

6.2. Measurements

6.3. Statistical Analysis

6.4. Geochemistry

6.5. Conditions Check for Hypotheses Testing

6.6. Statistical Results

6.7. Geochemical Analysis

6.8. Conclusions

7 . Clay Distribution and Adapted Drainage

7.1. Soil Sampling

7.2. Statistical Analysis

7.3. Soil Texture

7.4. Finding a Regression Model

7.5. Regression Goodness of Fit

7.6. Soil Hydraulics Analysis

7.7. Conclusions

8. Infiltration Rate Increase from Upstream in a Valley

8.1. Boreholes Preparation

8.2. Under Phreatic Infiltration Rate Measurements

8.3. Statistical Analysis

8.4. Selecting a Regression Model

8.5. Regression Goodness of Fit Checks

8.6. Cross Sectional Permeability Comparisons

8.7. Conclusions

9. Water Management Using Autocorrelation

9.1. Water Level Diver Installation

9.2. Assessment of Irrigation Water Use During the Seasons

9.3. Statistical Analysis

9.3.1. Removing Outliers and Stabilizing the Variance

9.3.2. ARIMA Model

9.3.3. Autocorrelation

9.3.4. Partial Autocorrelation PACF

9.4. Assessing the Water Use Along the Two Seasons

9.5. Assessing the Irrigation Schedule by a Seasonal ARIMA Model

9.6. Conclusions

10. Drainage and Liming Impacts on Ferrous Iron

10.1. Material and Methods

10.1.1. Bucket Experiment Design

10.1.2. Implementation of the Bucket Experiment

10.1.3. Statistical Analysis of the Bucket Experiment

10.1.4. Microplot Experiment Design

10.1.5. Implementation of the Microplot Experiment

10.1.6. Statistical Analysis of the Microplot Experiment

10.2. Results and Discussion

10.2.1. Pre-ANOVA Requirement Checks for Both Experiments

10.2.2. Post-ANOVA Requirement Checks for Both Experiments

10.2.3. Increase in Ferrous Iron but Decrease in Soil Acidity

10.2.4. Improvement of Soil Resistance to Iron Intoxication

10.3. Conclusions

11. Evaluation and Perspectives

11.1. Scientific and Engineering Insights

11.1.1. Iron and Clay Stratification in Some Valley Bottoms

11.1.2. How Hematite Soils Differ from Pyrite Soil with Mangroves

11.1.3. Permeability and Clay Analyses by Regression

11.1.4. Water Use Analysis: Critical for Irrigation Improvement

11.1.5. Microplot Experiments: Efficient to Track Soil Response

11.2. Socio Economic Impact of the Research Project

11.2.1. Tiefora

11.2.2. Moussodougou

11.2.3. Social Media

12. References


A. List of Symbols

B. Acronyms

C. Bucket Experiment Data Tables

D. Tiefora Farmers and Plot Sizes

E. Moussodougou Farmers and Plot Sizes

F. Microplot Experiments Data and Results

G. Samenvattting

H. Sommaire (Langue Française)

I. Sourouma (Bamanan Kan)

J. About the Author

About the Author


Amadou KEITA

Ouagaodougou, Kadiogo, Burkina Faso

Learn more about Amadou KEITA >>

Keïta Amadou (Bamako, 1964) followed his primary education in Mali at the Lycée Askia Mohamed. He obtained his engineering degree in Hydraulic Engineering at the National School for Engineers (ENI) in Bamako in 1987. He specialised in Agricultural Engineering at the Ecole Inter-Etats d’Ingénieurs de l’Equipement Rural (EIER, now 2iE) in year 1991. After that, he joined in 1992 the International Water Management Institute (IWMI) that implemented a project on irrigation performance assessment and diagnosis in Burkina Faso and Niger. From 1997 to 2006, Mr. Keïta became the subregional coordinator of the FAO project GCP/RAF/340/JPN, the activities of which were focused on the development and experimentation of sustainable low-cost and water efficient small irrigation systems. The irrigation systems were designed to use simultaneously surface water and shallow groundwater for small scale farming. The actions of this project were implemented in three countries: Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger. The office of the FAO project was located within the International School for Water and Environmental Engineering (2iE) in Ouagadougou, where Mr. Keïta started giving lectures in irrigation and drainage. While being coordinator of the FAO project, Mr. Keita obtained a French Master degree in physics and chemistry at the University of Ouagadougou in Burkina Faso in 2003. In year 2008, Mr. Keïta obtained a Master of Science degree in Land and Water Development at UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education in Delft, The Netherlands. Afterwards, he returned to 2iE and continued lecturing in irrigation and drainage. He completed a PhD in Land and Water Development at UNESCO-IHE in 2015. Mr. Keïta’s current research addresses the issue of drainage of cropland for production improvement. Iron toxicity is one of the most important challenges to rice research and production in Africa, and subsurface drainage of waterlogged valley bottom irrigated rice systems is viewed as a viable solution to alleviate iron toxicity in Tropical Savannah valley bottom soils.

About the Series

IHE Delft PhD Thesis Series

IHE Delft PhD programme leads to a deepening of a field of specialisation. PhD fellows do scientific research, often with conclusions that directly influence their region. At IHE Delft, PhD researchers from around the world participate in problem-focused and solution-oriented research on development issues, resulting in an inspiring research environment. PhD fellows work together with other researchers from many countries dealing with topics related to water and the environment.

PhD research is often carried out in the ‘sandwich’ model. Preparation and final reporting – the first and last portion of the programme – are carried out in Delft, while actual research is done in the fellow’s home country, under co-supervision of a local institute. Regular contacts with the promotor are maintained through visits and long-distance communication. This enables researchers to employ solutions directly to problems in their geographical region.

IHE Delft PhD degrees are awarded jointly with a university. The degrees are highly valued and fully recognised in all parts of the world.

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Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCIENCE / Environmental Science
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Agriculture / General