The environmental and climate program demands technological solutions in the chemical industry that incorporate prevention of pollution. Major advances are needed to reduce the use of organic solvents, such as methanol, toluene, xylene, methyl ethyl ketone, and dichloromethane, which account for 27 percent of total toxics release inventory chemicals. The replacement of those solvents is a key point to enable the transition from classical synthesis to green chemistry and nanotechnology concepts, i.e., to sustainability. The first radical option to achieve this goal is to completely avoid the use of solvents, as occurs in mechanochemical processes. A wide-range synthesis prospect is given by identifying between known solvents those with less negative environmental impact. This book concerns the analysis of the advantages of using compressed CO2 to produce not only improved materials in a better way, but also new nanoproducts. Recovering and using CO2, otherwise released into the atmosphere, is a means of recycling emissions resulting from other users. The use of supercritical CO2 is a complex option from a conceptual point of view requiring enhanced technical preparation.
Table of Contents
Part I. Introduction to supercritical fluid technology: critical conditions and basis of supercritical processing
Sustainable Processing and Nanomanufacturing; Concepción Domingo
Fundamentals of Supercritical Fluids and the Role of Modeling; Lourdes F. Vega
A Statistical Mechanical Equation of State for Predicting Critical Properties of Confined Fluids; Eldred Chimowitz and Pedro López-Aranguren
Part II. Supercritical CO2 precipitation methods
General Description of Non-Reactive Precipitation Methods; Concepción Domingo
Phase Equilibria, Densities and Viscosities of Carbon Dioxide plus Poly(ethylene glycol) Mixtures for Particle Formation Applications; Masayuki Iguchi, Yoshiyuki Sato, and Richard Lee Smith Jr.
Methods for Particles Production: Antisolvent Techniques; Pascale Subra-Paternault
Development of Hybrid Structured Particles Prepared through PGSS® Process; Vanessa S. S. Gonçalves and Catarina M. M. Duarte
Preparation of Water Soluble Formulations of Hydrophobic Active Compounds by Emulsion Template Processes; Ángel Martín, Esther de Paz, Facundo Mattea, and M. José Cocero
Part III. Introduction to reactive processes in supercritical fluids: scCO2 as a reagent or as a solvent
Strategies for scCO2 Technology; Concepción Domingo
Innovations in Organic Synthesis in scCO2: The Schiff Base Reaction and a Ship-in-a-Bottle Approach for the Preparation of Hybrid Materials; Ana M. Lopez-Periago, Nerea Murillo, and Concepción Domingo
Supercritical CO2 for the Reactive Precipitation of Calcium Carbonate: Uses and Applications to Industrial Processing; Concepción Domingo, Ana M. López, Julio. Fraile, and Ana Hidalgo
Part IV. Polymer modification in supercritical carbon dioxide: foaming and impregnation
Polymer Processing Using Supercritical Fluid Based Technologies for Drug Delivery and Tissue Engineering Applications; Ana Rita C. Duarte, João F. Mano, and Rui L. Reis
An Integrated Supercritical Extraction and Impregnation Process for Production of Antibacterial Scaffolds; María A. Fanovich, Jasna Ivanovic, and Philip T. Jaeger
Compressed Fluids, Porous Polymers and Tissue Engineering; Aurelio Salerno and Concepción Domingo Polymer Nanocomposites and Nanocomposite Foams in Compressed CO2; David L. Tomasko and Hrishikesh R. Munj
Part V. Coating and impregnation processes using dense phase CO2
Coating and Impregnation Processes Using Dense Phase CO2; Concepción Domingo, Carlos A. García-González, and Pedro López-Aranguren
Supercritical Dyeing; M.Vanesa Fernandez Cid and Geert F. Woerlee
Part VI: Introduction to characterization: experimental design, process monitoring and products analysis
Introduction to the Analytical Characterization of Materials. Application of Chemometrics to Process Optimization and Data Analysis; Javier Saurina
Interaction of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide with Polymers Studied by Vibrational Spectroscopy; Andrew V. Ewing and Sergei G. Kazarian
On-line analytical methods: axisymmetric drop shape analysis; M. Giovanna Pastore Carbone and Ernesto Di Maio
Concepción Domingo received her MSc in chemistry at the Barcelona University (Spain) followed, in 1992, by a PhD in materials science. In 1994 she joined the Chemical Engineering Department at the TU-Delft (the Netherlands), starting the research in the area of supercritical fluids. Currently, she is leader of the Supercritical Fluids and Functional Materials group at the Materials Science Institute of Barcelona (CSIC). She has focused her scientific objectives on the synthesis, characterization, and development of micro- and nanoparticulate systems and the preparation of composite materials by using two major groups of processing methods: colloidal solutions and sol–gel routes to supercritical solutions. Dr. Domingo has published more than 100 articles in internationally recognized journals, most of them related to supercritical fluid technology for nanomaterials preparation, encapsulation, and functionalization, applied to biomaterials and high-tech functions. Most of her research is directed to the synthesis and functionalization of porous systems using supercritical CO2 for high-performance applications.
Pascal Subra-Paternault is a CNRS senior scientist who has been working with supercritical fluids for more than 25 years in the fields of natural products, crystallization, particles generation, and modification (precipitation, formulation, coating, infiltration, surface grafting). After obtaining a PhD in analytical chemistry in 1989, she pursued her career at LIMHP (Materials and Process Engineering), spent a year at Princeton University, USA (P. Debenedetti’s group), moved to Université de Bordeaux in 2006, and joined CBMN Institute in 2011 (processing bio- and pharmaceutical molecules), where she leads a team of 10 members. Her research, supported by European, national, and private funding, is currently focused on extraction, purification, and formulation of bioactive molecules (mostly lipids and polyphenols) and fabrication of cocrystals.
"This book shows the interesting versatility of supercritical fluid technology in materials preparation for completely novel applications. The authors, as well as the editors, are internationally recognized experts who have put together an enjoyable and useful recompilation of the main discoveries in the development of this new green technology."
— Dr. Julio San Román, Institute of Polymer Science and Technology (ICTP-CSIC), Spain