Surface Tension and Related Thermodynamic Quantities of Aqueous Electrolyte Solutions: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Surface Tension and Related Thermodynamic Quantities of Aqueous Electrolyte Solutions

1st Edition

By Norihiro Matubayasi

CRC Press

223 pages | 118 B/W Illus.

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Description

Surface tension provides a thermodynamic avenue for analyzing systems in equilibrium and formulating phenomenological explanations for the behavior of constituent molecules in the surface region. While there are extensive experimental observations and established ideas regarding desorption of ions from the surfaces of aqueous salt solutions, a more successful discussion of the theory has recently emerged, which allows the quantitative calculation of the distribution of ions in the surface region. Surface Tension and Related Thermodynamic Quantities of Aqueous Electrolyte Solutions provides a detailed and systematic analysis of the properties of ions at the air/water interface.

Unifying older and newer theories and measurements, this book emphasizes the contributions of simple ions to surface tension behavior, and the practical consequences. It begins with a general discussion on Gibbs surface thermodynamics, offering a guide to his theoretical insight and formulation of the boundary between fluids. The text then discusses the thermodynamic formulae that are useful for practical experimental work in the analysis of fluid/fluid interfaces.

Chapters cover surface tension of pure water at air/water and air/oil interfaces, surface tension of solutions and the thermodynamic quantities associated with the adsorption and desorption of solutes, and surface tension of simple salt solutions. They also address adsorption of ions at the air/water interface, surface tension of solutions and the effect of temperature, adsorption from mixed electrolyte solutions, and thermodynamic properties of zwitterionic amino acids in the surface region. Focusing on the thermodynamic properties of ions at air/fluid interfaces, this book gives scientists a quantitative, rigorous, and objectively experimental methodology they can employ in their research.

Table of Contents

Introduction to Thermodynamic Consideration of Fluid/Fluid

Interface

Phase and Phase Boundaries

Surface of Discontinuity and Surface Region

Phenomena Resulting from Surface Tension

Mechanical and Thermodynamic Definition of Surface Tension

Gibbs’ Thermodynamic Treatment of Surface

Gibbs’ Surface Model

Guggenheim’s Surface Phase Model

Hansen’s Convention

Gibbs’ and Hansen’s Choice of Independent Variables

References

Basic Thermodynamic Relations for the Analysis of Fluid/Fluid Interface

Phase Rule

Fundamental Equation

One-Component, Two-Phase System

Potential

Quasithermodynamic Relations

Surface Tension of Two-Component, Two-Phase System

Surface Tension of Three-Component, Two-Phase System

Surface Tension as a Function of Temperature, Pressure, and Concentration

Quasithermodynamic Relations for Adsorption

Surface Tension of Binary Mixtures in Equilibrium with a Water Phase

Surface Tension of Mixed Solute System

Concentration Variables and Chemical Potentials of

Electrolyte Solutions

Surface Tension of Electrolyte Solutions

Total Number of Moles of Ions as a Concentration Variable

References

Surface Tension of Pure Water at Air/Water and Oil/Water Interfaces

Surface Tension of Argon, Xenon, and Nitrogen

Surface Tension of Vapor/Water Interface

Surface Tension of Air/Water Interface

Interfacial Tension of Water in Equilibrium with Oil

Thermodynamic Quantities of Surface Formation of Pure Water

References

Surface Tension of Air/Water Interface

Capillary Rise Method

Wilhelmy Plate Method

Drop Volume Method

Surface Tension of Solutions

Adsorption from Binary Liquid Mixtures

Adsorption from Solutions

Surface Activity

Entropy Change Associated with the Adsorption

Energy, Heat Content, and Work Content Associated with the Adsorption

References

Surface Tension of Simple Salt Solutions

Aqueous Solutions of 1:1 Electrolytes

Electrolytes

Aqueous Solutions of 2:1 Electrolytes

Aqueous Solutions of 1:2 Electrolytes

Aqueous Solutions of 2:2 Electrolytes

Hydration Enthalpies, dγ/dm Values, and Valence Type

dγ/dm Values of Oil/Water Interface

Comparison of dγ/dm Values Shown in the Literatures

References

Adsorption of Ions at Air/Water Interface

Surface Excess Density of Ions

ΓH/m of Electrolytes

ΓH k / mk of Ions

Reference

Surface Tension of Solutions and Temperature

dγ/dm Values and Temperature

dγ/dm and Δs of Electrolyte Solutions

Helmholtz Free Energy, Enthalpy, and Energy of the Adsorption of Electrolytes

References

Adsorption from Mixed Electrolyte Solutions

Surface Tension of Binary Mixtures as a Function of m1 and m2

Surface Tension of Binary Mixtures as a Function of Concentration and Composition

Mixtures of Electrolytes with Common Cation

Mixtures of Electrolytes with a Common Anion

Solutions with Impurity

References

Aqueous Solutions of Zwitterionic Amino Acids

Aqueous Solutions of Glycine

Surface Tension of Hydrochloric Acid–Glycine and Glycine–Sodium Hydroxide Systems at 25°C

Adsorbed Film of Leucine and Structural Isomers

Zwitterionic Leucine (L±) and Sodium Leucinate Mixtures

Mixed Adsorbed Film of Leucine and Sodium Chloride

References

About the Author

Norihiro Matubayasi, Ph.D., is a professor of chemistry in the Faculty of Fisheries, Nagasaki University, Japan. His current research activities are in surface science, with emphasis on thermodynamic properties of surface active molecules at the fluid/fluid interface. His recent research involves the adsorption and desorption of ions of simple salt solutions. He received Ph.D. and M.S. degrees in chemistry from Kyushu University, and a B.S. from Saga University, Japan.

About the Series

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Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI013050
SCIENCE / Chemistry / Physical & Theoretical
SCI055000
SCIENCE / Physics
TEC021000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Material Science