2nd Edition

Surface and Underground Excavations Methods, Techniques and Equipment

By Ratan Raj Tatiya Copyright 2013
    904 Pages
    by CRC Press

    904 Pages
    by CRC Press

    Surface and Underground Excavations – Methods, Techniques and Equipment (2nd edition) covers the latest technologies and developments in the excavation arena at any locale: surface or underground. In the first few chapters, unit operations are discussed and subsequently, excavation techniques are described for various operations: tunnelling, drifting, raising, sinking, stoping, quarrying, surface mining, liquidation and mass blasting as well as construction of large subsurface excavations such as caverns and underground chambers. The design, planning and development of excavations are treated in a separate chapter. Especially featured are methodologies to select stoping methods through incremental analysis.

    Furthermore, this edition encompasses comprehensive sections on mining at ‘ultra depths’, mining difficult deposits using non-conventional technologies, mineral inventory evaluation (ore – reserves estimation) and mine closure. Concerns over Occupational Health and Safety (OHS), environment and loss prevention, and sustainable development are also addressed in advocating a solution to succeed within a scenario of global competition and recession.

    This expanded second edition has been wholly revised, brought fully up-to-date and includes (wherever feasible) the latest trends and best practices, case studies, global surveys and toolkits as well as questions at the end of each chapter. This volume will now be even more appealing to students in earth sciences, geology, and in civil, mining and construction engineering, to practicing engineers and professionals in these disciplines as well as to all with a general or professional interest in surface and underground excavations.

    1 Introduction
    1.1 Excavations and their classification
    1.2 Surface excavations
    1.3 Underground excavations
    1.4 Importance of minerals and brief history of their recovery
    1.5 Current status of mineral industry
    1.6 Excavation technologies/systems – development & growth
    1.7 Unique features of mineral industry
    1.7.1 Different phases of mine life
    1.8 Brief history of civil work excavations including tunneling
    1.9 The current scenario
    1.9.1 Population growth
    1.9.2 Lifestyle
    1.9.3 Globalization
    1.9.4 Buyer’s market
    1.9.5 Technological developments and renovations
    1.9.6 Information technology (IT) and its impacts
    1.10 Tomorrow’s mine & civil excavations
    1.11 The way forward

    2 Rocks, minerals and mineral inventory evaluation
    2.1 Formation process and classification
    2.1.1 Igneous rocks
    2.1.2 Sedimentary rocks
    2.1.3 Metamorphic rocks
    2.2 Rock cycle & type of deposits
    2.3 Texture, grain size and shape
    2.3.1 Grain sizes and shapes
    2.3.2 Durability, plasticity and swelling potential of rocks
    2.4 The concepts of mineral resources and reserves; mineral inventory, cutoff grade and ores
    2.4.1 Some important ores – chemical & mineralogical composition
    2.5 Geological structures
    2.5.1 Geometry of a deposit
    2.5.2 Forms of deposits
    2.5.3 Structural features of rock mass
    2.6 Physical and mechanical characteristics of ores and rocks
    2.6.1 Rocks as rock mechanics
    2.6.2 Rock composition
    2.6.3 Rock strength
    2.7 Some other properties/characteristics
    2.7.1 Hardness of minerals
    2.7.2 Rock breakability
    2.8 Related terms – rock and mineral deposits
    2.9 Mineral inventory evaluation
    2.9.1 Introduction
    2.9.2 Grade computation from borehole data
    2.9.3 Mineral inventory modelling/estimation techniques Method of polygons Triangle or triangular prism method Cross-sectional method Inverse Square Distance Weighting (IDW) method Classical statistics Geostatistics Non-linear estimation techniques in geostatistics
    2.9.4 Important considerations for evaluation of the mineral inventory Homogeneity and mode of origin Geological and mineralogical boundaries
    2.9.5 Computation of the mineral inventory Logical steps followed Graphical presentation of data Statistical analysis and cumulative probability distribution Structural analysis – the semi-variogram Trend surface analysis Checking the variogram model Block kriging Block dimensions Kriging procedure
    2.9.6 Graphical presentation of the kriged results
    2.9.7 Grade-tonnage calculation and plotting the curves
    2.9.8 Selection of a suitable mining/stoping method
    2.10 Resources classification by UNECE
    2.11 The way forward

    3 Prospecting, exploration & site investigations
    3.1 Introduction
    3.2 Prospecting and exploration
    3.2.1 Finding signs of the mineral in the locality or general indications Geological studies Geo-chemical studies
    3.2.2 Finding the deposit or preliminary proving Geophysical methods/studies/surveys Putting exploratory headings
    3.2.3 Exploring the deposits or detailed proving – prospecting drilling
    3.3 Phases of prospecting and exploration program
    3.4 Site investigations for civil constructions, or any excavation project including tunnels and caverns
    3.5 Rocks and ground characterization
    3.5.1 Rock strength classification
    3.5.2 Rock mass classifications
    3.6 Rock quality designation (RQD)
    3.6.1 Q (Rock mass quality) system
    3.6.2 Geomechanics classification (RMR system)
    3.6.3 Rock structure rating (RSR)
    3.7 Geological and geotechnical factors
    3.8 The way forward

    4 Drilling
    4.1 Introduction – unit operations
    4.2 Primary rock breaking
    4.3 Drilling
    4.4 Operating components of the drilling system
    4.5 Mechanics of rock penetration
    4.5.1 Top-hammer drilling
    4.5.2 Down-the-hole (DTH) drilling
    4.5.3 Rotary drilling
    4.5.4 Augur drill
    4.5.5 Rotary abrasive drilling
    4.6 Rock drill classification
    4.6.1 Tunneling/development drill jumbos
    4.6.2 Shaft jumbos
    4.6.3 Ring drilling jumbos
    4.6.4 Fan drilling jumbos
    4.6.5 Wagon drill jumbos
    4.6.6 DTH drill jumbos
    4.6.7 Roof bolting jumbos
    4.7 Motive power of rock drills
    4.7.1 Electric drills
    4.7.2 Pneumatic drills
    4.7.3 Hydraulic drills
    4.8 Drilling accessories
    4.8.1 Extension drill steels
    4.8.2 Bits
    4.8.3 Impact of rock-type on drilling performance
    4.9 Selection of drill
    4.10 Summary – rocks drill applications
    4.11 Drilling postures
    4.12 The way forward

    5 Explosives and blasting
    5.1 Introduction – explosives
    5.2 Detonation and deflagration
    5.3 Common ingredients of explosives
    5.4 Classification of explosives
    5.4.1 Primary or initiating explosives
    5.4.2 Secondary explosives
    5.4.3 Pyrotechnic explosives
    5.4.4 Low explosives
    5.4.5 Commercial explosives – high explosives Gelatin explosives Dynamites (straight dynamite, ammonia dynamite) Blasting gelatin Semi gelatin Wet blasting agents Slurry explosives Emulsions Heavy ANFO Dry blasting agents Explosive ANFO ANFO mixing ANFO loading Pneumatic loaders and principles of loading Pressure type loaders Ejector type loader Combine type (combining pressure and ejecting features) Safety aspects Static hazards associated with ANFO loading Special types of explosives Permitted explosives Seismic explosives Overbreak control explosives
    5.4.6 Military explosives
    5.5 Blasting properties of explosives
    5.5.1 Strength
    5.5.2 Detonation velocity
    5.5.3 Density
    5.5.4 Water resistance
    5.5.5 Fume characteristics, or class, or medical aspects
    5.5.6 Oxygen balance
    5.5.7 Completion of reaction
    5.5.8 Detonation pressure
    5.5.9 Borehole pressure and critical diameter
    5.5.10 Sensitivity
    5.5.11 Safety in handling & storage qualities
    5.5.12 Explosive cost
    5.6 Explosive initiating devices/systems
    5.6.1 Detonator system Detonators Instantaneous detonators Plain detonator Instantaneous electric detonators Delay detonators Electric delay detonators Electronic delay detonators Non-electric delay detonators: detonating relays (ms connectors) Primadet and anodet non-electric delay blasting systems The nonel system Combine primadet-nonel system The hercudet blasting cap system Advantages of short delay blasting
    5.6.2 Fuse/cord system Safety fuse Detonating fuse/cord (DC) Igniter cords (IC)
    5.7 Explosive charging techniques
    5.7.1 Water gel (slurry loader)
    5.8 Blasting accessories
    5.8.1 Exploders
    5.8.2 Circuit testers
    5.8.3 Other blasting tools
    5.9 Firing systems – classification
    5.9.1 While firing with a safety fuse
    5.9.2 Firing with electric detonators
    5.9.3 Non-electric systems
    5.10 Ground blasting techniques
    5.10.1 Control/contour blasting Pre-splitting Cushion blasting Smooth blasting & buffer blasting Line drilling
    5.11 Secondary breaking
    5.11.1 Secondary rock breaking methods With the aid of explosives Plaster shooting Pop shooting Releasing jammed muck from the draw points
    5.11.2Without aid of explosives Mechanical rock breaking Manual breaking Mechanical rock breakers Hydraulic rock breakers Teledyne rock breaker Electrical rock breaking Rock breaking by the use of high frequency current Hydraulic boulder splitter
    5.12 Use, handling, transportation and storage of explosives
    5.12.1 Magazine
    5.13 Explosive selection
    5.14 Blasting theory
    5.14.1 Adverse impacts of explosives Ground/land vibrations Air blast and noise Rock throw
    5.15 Drilling and blasting performance
    5.15.1 Percentages pull
    5.15.2 Over-break factor
    5.15.3 Degree of fragmentation
    5.15.4 Overall cost
    5.16 Recent trends in explosives and blasting technology
    5.17 Concluding remarks

    6 Mucking, casting and excavation
    6.1 Introduction
    6.2 Muck characteristics
    6.3 Classification
    6.4 Underground mucking units
    6.4.1 Overshot loaders
    6.4.2 Autoloaders – hopper loaders and LHDs Autoloaders – mucking and delivering Mucking and transporting – load haul and dump units (LHDs) Constructional details Special provisions Buckets of LHD and other dimensions LHD tyres Distance, gradient and speed Ventilation Latest developments Desirable features Perfect layout Suitable drainage and road maintenance Well-fragmented muck Maintenance Trained personnel Advantages Limitations Manufacturers
    6.5 Arm loaders
    6.5.1 Gathering-arm-loader (GAL)
    6.5.2 Arm loaders for sinking operations
    6.5.3 Riddle mucker
    6.5.4 Cryderman mucker
    6.5.5 Cactus-grab muckers
    6.5.6 Backhoe mucker
    6.6 Scrapers
    6.7 Mucking in tunnels
    6.7.1 Dipper and hydraulic shovels
    6.7.2 Mucking in TBM driven tunnels
    6.8 Surface – excavation, loading and casting units
    6.9 Wheel loaders – front end loaders
    6.10 Backhoe
    6.11 Hydraulic excavators
    6.12 Shovel
    6.13 Dragline
    6.13.1 Multi bucket excavators
    6.14 Bucket chain excavator (BCE)
    6.15 Bucket wheel excavator (BWE)
    6.16 Calculations for selection of shovel/excavator
    6.17 Total cost calculations
    6.18 Governing factors for the selection of mucking equipment
    6.19 The way forward

    7 Transportation – haulage and hoisting
    7.1 Introduction
    7.2 Haulage system
    7.2.1 Rail or track mounted – rope haulage Rope haulage calculations Direct rope haulage system Endless rope haulage system Scope and applications of rope haulage
    7.2.2 Locomotive haulage Electric locomotives Battery locomotives Combination locomotives Diesel locomotives Compressed air locomotives Other fittings Locomotive calculations
    7.3 Trackless or tyred haulage system
    7.3.1 Automobiles
    7.3.2 LHD
    7.3.3 Shuttle car
    7.3.4 Underground trucks Trackless or tyred haulage system
    7.4 Conveyor system
    7.4.1 Belt conveyors Conveyor calculations
    7.4.2 Cable belt conveyors
    7.4.3 Scraper chain conveyors
    7.5 Hoisting or winding system
    7.5.1 Head-frame or head-gear
    7.5.2 Shaft conveyances
    7.5.3 Rope equipment
    7.5.4 Classification of hoisting system Multi-rope friction winding system
    7.5.5 Hoisting cycle
    7.5.6 Calculations of suspended load during hoisting
    7.5.7 Use of safety devices with a hoisting system
    7.6 Aerial ropeway
    7.6.1 Aerial ropeway calculations
    7.7 Ropes
    7.7.1 Rope calculations
    7.8 Track and mine car
    7.8.1 Track
    7.8.2 Mine cars
    7.9 The way forward

    8 Supports
    8.1 Introduction – necessity of supports
    8.2 Classification of supports
    8.3 Self support by in-place (in-situ) rock
    8.3.1 Support by the use of natural pillars
    8.3.2 Use of artificial supports Brick and stone masonry Wooden (timber) supports Calculations with regard to wooden supports Steel supports Steel props, powered and shield supports Rock bolting Concrete supports Support by filling
    8.4 Selection of support
    8.4.1 Measures to preserve the stability of the stoped out workings or to minimize problems of ground stability
    8.5 Effect of ore extraction upon displacement of country rock and surface
    8.6 The way forward

    9 Drives and tunnels (conventional methods)
    9.1 Introduction – function of drives and tunnels
    9.2 Drivage techniques (for drives and tunnels)
    9.3 Drivage techniques with the aid of explosives
    9.3.1 Pattern of holes Mechanized-cut kerf Blasting off the solid Parallel hole cuts Verification of pattern of holes
    9.3.2 Charging and blasting the rounds Placement of primer Stemming Depth of round/hole Charge density in cut-holes and rest of the face area
    9.3.3 Smooth blasting Charging and blasting procedure Use of ANFO in drives and tunnels
    9.4 Muck disposal and handling (mucking and transportation)
    9.5 Ventilation
    9.5.1 Mine opening ventilation Using general air flow Using auxiliary fans: forcing, exhaust or contra rotating
    9.5.2 Ventilation during civil tunneling
    9.6 Working cycle (including auxiliary operations)
    9.7 Driving large sized drives/tunnels in tough rocks
    9.7.1 Full-face driving/tunneling
    9.7.2 Pilot heading technique
    9.7.3 Heading and bench method
    9.8 Conventional tunneling methods: tunneling through the soft ground and soft rocks
    9.9 Supports for tunnels and mine openings
    9.9.1 Classification
    9.9.2 Selection of supports
    9.10 Driving without aid of explosives
    9.11 Pre-cursor or prior to driving civil tunnels
    9.11.1 Site investigations
    9.11.2 Location of tunnels
    9.11.3 Rocks and ground characterization
    9.11.4 Size, shape, length and orientation (route) of tunnels
    9.11.5 Preparatory work required
    9.12 Past, present and future of tunneling technology
    9.13 Over-break and scaling – some innovations
    9.14 Longer rounds – some trials
    9.15 The way forward

    10 Tunneling by roadheaders and impact hammers
    10.1 Tunneling by boom-mounted roadheaders
    10.2 Classification boom-mounted roadheaders
    10.2.1 Ripper (transverse) type roadheaders – (Cutter heads with rotation perpendicular to the boom axis) Bar type Disc type
    10.3 Milling or longitudinal (auger) roadheaders
    10.3.1 Borer type roadheaders
    10.4 Classification based on weight
    10.5 Advantages of roadheaders
    10.6 Important developments
    10.7 Procedure of driving by the heading machines
    10.8 Auxiliary operations
    10.8.1 Ground support
    10.9 Hydraulic impact hammer tunneling
    10.10 Excavation procedure and cycle of operations
    10.10.1 Hammer’s working cycle
    10.11 Merit and limitations
    10.12 Partial face rotary rock tunneling machines
    10.13 Excavators
    10.13.1 Excavators mounted within shield Excavator buckets
    10.14 Excavator with multiple tool miner (MTM) attachments
    10.14.1 Excavator mounted within a shield
    10.14.2 Excavator-mounted cutter booms (Partial face machines for NATM)
    10.15 The way forward

    11 Full-face tunnel borers (TBMs) & special methods
    11.1 Introduction
    11.1.1 Improved understanding
    11.2 Tunneling methods and procedures
    11.3 Full-face tunneling machines
    11.3.1 Full-face tunnel borers (mechanical) TBM – open and shielded
    11.3.2 Mechanical excavation of the full cross-section with open type machines Open main beam machines Single shield Double shield Enlarging TBM
    11.4 Mini tunnel borers
    11.5 Boring system
    11.6 Rock cutting tools and their types
    11.6.1 Cutting head configuration
    11.7 TBM performance
    11.7.1 Economical aspects
    11.8 Size of unit and its overall length including its trailing gear
    11.8.1 Advantages
    11.8.2 Disadvantages
    11.9 Backup system/activities
    11.9.1 Muck disposal
    11.9.2 Single track
    11.9.3 Double track
    11.9.4 Continuous conveyor system
    11.9.5 Other back-ups include
    11.10 TBMs for soft ground/formations
    11.10.1 Full-face shield with picks
    11.10.2 Compressed air shields
    11.10.3 Slurry shield
    11.10.4 Earth pressure balance Segments Back filling Auxiliary construction measures
    11.10.5 Developments
    11.11 Phases of tunneling project
    11.11.1 Tunnel portal
    11.11.2 Phases of a TBM project
    11.12 Future technology
    11.12.1 Hard rock TBMs
    11.12.2 Soft ground machines
    11.13 New Austrian tunneling method (NATM)
    11.13.1 NATM design philosophy and typical features
    11.13.2 Ground categories and tunneling procedures Excavation sequence
    11.13.3 Semi-mechanized methods
    11.14 Tunneling through abnormal or difficult ground using special methods
    11.14.1 Ground treatment Reinforcement Treatment that tackles the problems arising due to the presence of water Lowering water table/ground water Use of compressed air to hold back water Grouting Freezing
    11.15 Cut and cover method of tunneling
    11.16 Submerged tubes/tunnels
    11.17 The way forward

    12 Planning
    12.1 Economic studies
    12.1.1 Phases or stages in economic studies Preliminary studies or valuation Intermediate economic study or pre-feasibility study Feasibility study Information on deposit Information on general project economics Mining method selection Processing methods Ecology Capital and operating costs estimates Project cost & rates of return Comments
    12.1.2 Conceptual mine planning and detailed project reports Conceptual studies/models Engineering studies Models and detailed design
    12.2 Mine design elements
    12.2.1 Mineral resources and reserves
    12.2.2 Cutoff grade Mining & process plant input-output calculations (for a copper mining complex) Cutoff grade calculations
    12.2.3 Interrelationship amongst the mine design elements
    12.2.4 Mine life Phases or stages during mine life
    12.3 Dividing property for the purpose of underground mining
    12.3.1 Panel system
    12.3.2 Level system
    12.3.3 Level interval
    12.4 Mine planning duration
    12.5 Mine development – introduction
    12.6 Access to deposit or means of mine access
    12.7 System – opening up a deposit
    12.7.1 Opening deposit in parts
    12.7.2 Opening up the whole deposit
    12.8 Positioning and developing the main haulage levels
    12.8.1 Selecting development in ore or rock (country rock)
    12.8.2 Vertical development in the form of raises
    12.8.3 Connecting main levels by ramps/declines/slopes
    12.8.4 Determination of optimal load concentration point Analytical method Graphical method: funicular diagram
    12.9 Size and shape of mine openings and tunnels
    12.10 Pit top layouts
    12.11 Pit bottom layouts
    12.11.1 Types of pit bottom layouts
    12.12 Structures concerning pit bottom layouts
    12.13 The way forward

    13 Excavations in upward direction – raising
    13.1 Introduction
    13.2 Raise applications in civil and construction industries
    13.3 Classification – types of raises for mines
    13.4 Raise driving techniques
    13.5 Conventional raising method: open raising
    13.6 Conventional raising method: raising by compartment
    13.7 Raising by the use of mechanical climbers: Jora hoist
    13.8 Raising by mechanical climbers: Alimak raise climber
    13.8.1 Preparatory work and fittings
    13.8.2 Ignition and telephone systems
    13.8.3 Cycle of operations
    13.8.4 Performance
    13.8.5 Design variants
    13.8.6 Air-driven unit
    13.8.7 Electrically driven unit
    13.8.8 Diesel-hydraulic unit
    13.9 Blasthole raising method: long-hole raising
    13.9.1 Marking the raise
    13.9.2 Equipment installation
    13.9.3 Drilling
    13.9.4 Raise correlation
    13.9.5 Blowing and plugging the holes
    13.9.6 Charging and blasting
    13.9.7 Limitations
    13.9.8 Advantages
    13.10 Blasthole raising method: drop raising
    13.11 Raising by the application of raise borers
    13.12 Raise boring in a package – BorPak
    13.13 Ore pass/waste rock pass
    13.13.1 Size and shape
    13.13.2 Ore pass lining
    13.13.3 Design consideration of rock pass/ore pass
    13.14 The way forward

    14 Shaft sinking
    14.1 Introduction
    14.2 Location
    14.3 Preparatory work required
    14.4 Sinking appliances, equipment and services
    14.5 Sinking methods and procedure
    14.6 Reaching up to the rock head
    14.6.1 Pre-sink
    14.7 Sinking through the rock
    14.7.1 Drilling
    14.7.2 Blasting
    14.7.3 Lashing and mucking
    14.7.4 Hoisting
    14.7.5 Support or shaft lining
    14.7.6 Auxiliary operations Dewatering Ventilation Illumination Shaft centering Station construction and initial development
    14.8 Special methods of shaft sinking
    14.9 Piling system
    14.10 Caisson method
    14.10.1 Sinking drum process
    14.10.2 Forced drop-shaft method
    14.10.3 Pneumatic caisson method
    14.11 Special methods by temporary or permanent isolation of water
    14.11.1 Cementation Boring/Drilling Cementation Sinking and walling
    14.12 The freezing process
    14.12.1 Drilling and lining of boreholes
    14.12.2 Formation and maintenance of the ice column
    14.12.3 Actual sinking operations
    14.12.4 Thawing of ice wall
    14.12.5 Freezing – shafts
    14.12.6 Ground freezing practices in Germany
    14.13 Shaft drilling and boring
    14.13.1 Shaft drilling
    14.13.2 Shaft boring
    14.14 Safety in sinking shafts
    14.14.1 Field tests and measurements
    14.15 The way forward

    15 Large sub-surface excavations
    15.1 Introduction
    15.2 Caverns
    15.2.1 Constructional details – important aspects Construction procedure
    15.3 Powerhouse caverns
    15.4 Oil storage caverns
    15.5 Repository
    15.6 Salt cavern storage
    15.7 Aquifer storage
    15.8 Exhibition hall caverns
    15.9 Underground chambers in mines
    15.10 Equipment and services selection
    15.11 The way forward

    16 Underground mining/stoping methods & mine closure
    16.1 Introduction
    16.1.1 Factors governing choice of a mining method Shape and size of the deposit Thickness of deposit Dip of the deposit Physical and mechanical characteristics of the ore and the enclosing rocks Presence of geological disturbances and influence of the direction of cleats or partings Degree of mechanization and output required Ore grade and its distribution, and value of the product Depth of the deposit Presence of water Presence of gases Ore & country rock susceptibility to caking and oxidation
    16.1.2 Desirable features of selecting a stoping method
    16.1.3 Classification – stoping methods
    16.2 Open stoping methods
    16.2.1 Open stoping method – room & pillar stoping Introduction Stope preparation Unit operations Stoping operations Bord and pillar Block system Stope and pillar Advantages Limitations
    16.2.2 Open stoping method – shrinkage stoping Introduction Stope preparation Unit operations Stoping operations Layouts Winning the pillars Advantages Limitations
    16.2.3 Open stoping method – sublevel stoping Introduction Sublevel stoping with benching Blasthole stoping Longitudinal sublevel stoping Transverse sublevel stoping Blasthole drilling
    16.2.4 Large blasthole stoping Stope preparation (general procedure) VCR method Unit operations Layouts Advantages Limitations Winning the pillars
    16.3 Supported stoping methods
    16.3.1 Supported stoping method – stull stoping Introduction Unit operations Auxiliary operations Stope preparation Stoping Layouts Variants Advantages Limitations
    16.3.2 Supported stoping method: cut & fill stoping Introduction Stope preparation Stoping Unit operations Auxiliary operations Advantages Limitations Variants Cut and fill with flat back Cut and fill with inclined slicing Post and pillar cut and fill stoping Stope drive or undercut and fill stoping Filling methods during deep mining Top slicing (An undercut-and-fill method) Filling materials
    16.3.3 Supported stoping method – square set stoping Introduction Stope preparation Stoping Unit operations Auxiliary operations Layouts Advantages Limitations
    16.4 Caving methods
    16.4.1 Caving method – longwall mining Introduction Unit operations While mining coal Stope preparation Stoping operations Layouts Advantages Limitations Mining at ultra depths
    16.4.2 Caving method – sublevel caving Introduction Unit operations Variants Stope preparation (transverse sublevel caving) Stope preparation (sublevel caving – longitudinal) Layouts Advantages Limitations
    16.4.3 Caving method – block caving Introduction Unit operations Variants Methods of draw Stope preparation Layouts Advantages Limitations
    16.5 Common aspects
    16.5.1 Stope design Model parameters Design parameters
    16.5.2 Application of computers in stope design and economic analysis
    16.5.3 Proposed methodology for selection of a stoping method for the base metal deposits with a case study
    16.6 Mine liquidation
    16.6.1 Liquidation of the stopes of different types
    16.6.2 Planning liquidation
    16.6.3 Liquidation techniques
    16.6.4 Pillar types & methods of their extraction Pillar extraction methods Planning a heavy-blast for liquidation purpose
    16.6.5 Case studies Heavy blasting at a copper mine Remnant pillars’ blast at lead-zinc mine Blast planning Results of the blast
    16.7 Planning for mine closure
    16.7.1 Introduction
    16.7.2 Phases – mine closure
    16.7.3 The integrated mine closure planning guidelines (toolkit) Salient features (parameters to be considered) for closure planning Guidelines/toolkit details Glossary
    16.8 The way forward

    17 Surface excavations
    17.1 Introduction – surface mining methods
    17.2 Open pit mining
    17.2.1 Open pit elements Bench angle or slope
    17.2.2 Overall pit slope angle Computation of overall pit slope angle
    17.2.3 Stripping ratio
    17.2.4 Overall pit profile Coning concept for open pit design
    17.2.5 Stripping sequence
    17.3 Haul roads
    17.4 Ramp and its gradient
    17.5 Open cast mining/strip mining
    17.5.1 Introduction
    17.5.2 Design aspects
    17.5.3 Operational details – surface mines Planning Site preparation Opening up the deposit
    17.5.4 Development Waste rock dumps
    17.5.5 Bench blasting design patterns Linear formulas Power formulas derived by statistical analysis Formulas related to energy transfer in rock blasting, burden and blasthole diameter Tatiya and Adel’s formula to determine burden with respect to blasthole diameter Powder factor method
    17.5.6 Drilling and blasting operations
    17.5.7 Cast blasting
    17.5.8 Muck handling
    17.5.9 Selection of excavator and transportation units
    17.5.10 Calculations for selection of shovel/excavator Time factor Operational factor (Of) Bucket fill factor (Bf)
    17.5.11 Theoretical output from an excavator/hr
    17.5.12 Output from a continuous flow unit
    17.5.13 Transportation schemes
    17.5.14 In-pit crushing and conveying
    17.5.15 Dumping site
    17.5.16 Integrated or matching equipment complex Global Positioning System (GPS)
    17.5.17 Quarrying of dimension stones
    17.6 Quarrying of dimension stones
    17.6.1 Drilling
    17.6.2 Line drilling
    17.6.3 Discontinuous or spaced drilling
    17.6.4 Drilling and blasting Blast results at Vanga granite quarry in southern Sweden
    17.6.5 Wire cutter – helicoid and diamond
    17.6.6 Cutter saw and rock channellers (impact cutting machines) Merits Disadvantages
    17.7 The diamond belt saw
    17.7.1 Water jet technology
    17.7.2 Thermal cutting
    17.7.3 Underground quarrying
    17.8 Earth movers
    17.9 The way forward

    18 Hazards, occupational health and safety (OHS), environment and loss prevention
    18.1 Introduction
    18.2 Potential excavation hazards
    18.2.1 Hazards (risks) analysis and management
    18.3 Safety and accidents
    18.3.1 Terminology
    18.3.2 Safety strategies
    18.3.3 Safety elements People/mine workers The systems The working environment (conditions)
    18.3.4 Accidents Accidents/incident analysis & calculations Common accident areas/heads Accident costs Remedial measures Measures/preparedness Hazards analysis methods
    18.4 Occupational health and surveillance
    18.4.1 Industrial hygiene Aqueous effluents – permissible quality & efficient discharge House keeping The 5S concept
    18.4.2 Working conditions
    18.4.3 Ergonomics Introduction Impacts of poor ergonomics
    18.4.4 Occupational health surveillance Organizational culture and workplace stresses ‘Presenteeism’ – lost performance at work Periodic health surveillance: based on exposure-risk Notified diseases and preventive measures
    18.5 Environment degradation and mitigation measures
    18.5.1 Balance system/equation
    18.5.2 Environmental degradation
    18.5.3 Environmental management
    18.5.4 Environmental system
    18.6 Loss prevention
    18.6.1 Classification – losses
    18.6.2 Abnormalities
    18.6.3 5W-2H analysis
    18.6.4 Wastage
    18.6.5 Case-study illustrating computation of financial losses
    18.6.6 Use of Information Technology (IT) in integrating processes and information
    18.7 The way forward

    19 Sustainable Development
    19.1 Sustainable Development (SD) in mining
    19.1.1 Sustainable development
    19.1.2 Global issues & backlog on sustainable development
    19.1.3 Sustainable development in mining
    19.2 Stakeholders and sustainable development
    19.2.1 Principles/guidelines for SD by ICMM
    19.2.2 Status of SD in mining, based on stakeholders’ views though a survey by globalscan
    19.3 Scenarios influencing mining industry
    19.3.1 Population growth and resulting impacts/implications
    19.3.2 Use of minerals by world’s citizens
    19.3.3 Mineral consumption trends
    19.3.4 Status of quality, quantity, type of mineral and resources depletion
    19.3.5 Mineral consumption prediction
    19.3.6 Mining industry’s inherent problems and challenges
    19.3.7 Global risk ranking and competitiveness in the mining sector
    19.4 Is mining industry equipped to meet the challenges?
    19.4.1 Technological developments in mining
    19.4.2 Initiatives already taken globally to meet demand of minerals mass consumption
    19.5 Proposed strategy to run mines is an economically viable (beneficial) way
    19.5.1 Exploration: huge, intensive & speedy together with bringing precision in ore evaluation techniques
    19.5.2 Establishing mineral inventory, cutoff grade and ore reserves
    19.5.3 Division of mineral property (i.e. orebody or coal deposits into level and panels)
    19.5.4 Locale-specific challenges and proposed solutions/way-outs Underground metalliferous mining challenges Underground coal mining challenges Open cast/open pit mines (coal & non coal) challenges
    19.5.5 Mining difficult deposits using non-conventional technologies
    19.5.6 Improved fragmentation – a better way to extract minerals (ore, waste rocks, overburden) to save energy
    19.5.7 Precision in operations – maximizing recovery
    19.5.8 The critical path to full automation
    19.5.9 Effective utilization of resources through standardization & benchmarking
    19.5.10 Needs-based changes, research and development
    19.6 Measures for SD through improvements environmentally, socially and ethically
    19.6.1 HSE – a critical business activity for sustainable development
    19.6.2 Economic development regional as well as local – A case-study
    19.7 Legal compliances and mining policy
    19.7.1 Mining laws – legislation
    19.7.2 Minerals & mining policy
    19.8 Quality of human resources
    19.8.1 Academic (educational) status and standard of mining schools
    19.9 The ultimate aim
    19.9.1 Contented employees & stakeholders
    19.9.2 Efficient systems including best practices
    19.9.3 Legal compliance including Environment Management Systems (EMS)
    19.9.4 World Class Management (WCM)
    19.10 The way forward: proposed milestones/strategy
    Subject index


    Dr. Ratan Tatiya is a consultant in the areas of excavation, construction, mining and allied disciplines and in a career spanning more than 42 years he has held senior positions in the industry, as a professor, researcher and consultant and has worked with multinationals from more than 40 countries. His industrial background has led to this book being industrially relevant and his academic background has ensured that the fundamentals and basics required to help readers have been included.