328 Pages 50 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    This book examines cacao cultivation with a view to improving the sustainable management and production of this crop.

    Theobroma cacao is an important species originating in the Ecuadorian Amazon and whose product chocolate is consumed worldwide. Cacao cultivation is an industry supporting over ten million people, and so it is vitally important, in this changing climate, that the species is properly and sustainably managed and cultivated. This book brings together a wide range of experts from across the globe to examine cacao cultivation, from the basic aspects of reproduction, genetic improvement, nutrition and pest management, to agroforestry, industrialisation and marketing in a global food system. Case studies are drawn from across Latin America, but the research reflects the nature of a crop that is cultivated in over sixty countries and processed, manufactured and consumed world-wide.

    This book will be of great interest to students and scholars of agronomy, sustainable agriculture and crop science.

    List of figures

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    List of contributors





    Part I: Introduction

    Chapter 1. Cacao Agribusiness in a Global Context – an Overview

    Luz Cecilia García, Naga Raju Maddela, Edgar Zambrano, Freddy Zambrano Gavilanes, Carolina Aguilar

    Chapter 2. History, Origin, Cultivars, and Cacao Research in Ecuador

    Freddy Amores


    PART II: Agroforestry system

    Chapter 3. Cacao: shade and nutrition effects under amazon conditions 

    Santiago C. Vásquez, Mirian Capa-Morocho, Marlene Molina-Müller, Fernando Granja

    Chapter 4. Social benefits and human development implications of organic cacao producers in Calceta - Ecuador

    Marlon Arturo Cedeño Álava, David Giband, Luz Cecilia Garcia Cruzatty

    Chapter 5. Analyzing Cacao Agroforestry Complexity in Manabí, a Biodiverse Coastal Province of Ecuador

    Romina Fossati, Anne-Gaël Bilhaut, Ezequiel Zamora-Ledezma, Andrés González-González, Armelle Mazé, Juan F. Fernandez-Manjarrés

    Chapter 6. Resilience of cacao-based agroforestry systems to climate change: Latin American experiences

    Carlos A. Salas-Macías, Fernando Sánchez-Mora, Karime Montes Escobar, Javier de la Hoz-M, Ricardo Limongi-Andrade, Raul V. Mora-Yela, Felipe R. Garcés-Fiallos

    Chapter 7. Vulnerability of small cacao producers in Manabí Ecuador to climate change from the exposure dimension

    Jose Ricardo Macias Barberan


    PART III: Pests and Disease Management

    Chapter 8. Cacao Diseases in Latin American Agrosystems Caused by Fungi and Fungi-like

    Felipe R. Garcés-Fiallos, Anthony A. Moreira-Morrillo, Danilo I. Vera-Coello, Zoila K. Solís-Hidalgo, Ángel V. Cedeño-Moreira, Hayron F. Canchignia-Martínez

    Chapter 9. Sustainable pest management of cacao in the Neotropics: challenges and opportunities 

    Patricia Morán, Rossana Castro, Dorys T. Chirinos, Luz Cecilia García, Jessenia Castro, Takumasa Kondo 


    PART IV: Industrialization and By-products valorization

    Chapter 10. Cacao post-harvest processing: from tradition to modernization and its role to quality diversification 

    Zoi Papalexandratou, Manuel Kirchmayr, Eugenia Lugo- Cervantes, Dulce Velásquez-Reyes, Anne Gschaedler

    Chapter 11. Novel approaches in processing of cacao byproducts and their applications for a sustainable future 

    R. Suganthi, R. Saravanan, A. brundha, T. Bowya, A. Lakshmi, P. Abirami, M. Ashwini

    Chapter 12. Multiple factors influencing Theobroma cacao and their impact on Chocolate Market Worldwide

    Jyoti Sarwan, Mithila V. Nair, Shruti Bhargav, Shivam Kumar, Robbin Singh, Nazim Uddin, Jagadeesh Chandra Bose K.

    Chapter 13. Post-harvest quality of Theobroma cacao L. for the chocolate industry

    Frank Intriago Flor, Jaime Vera Chang, Luis Vásquez Cortez, Kerly Alvarado Vásquez, Solanyi Tigselema Zambrano, Cristhian Verduga López

    Chapter 14. Potential use of by-products of cacao industrialization  

    Freddy Zambrano Gavilanes, Viviana Suárez Navarrete, Marina García, Roberto Bravo Zamora, Soraya Peñarrieta Bravo, Rolando Leon Aguilar, Patricia Zambrano Gavilanes, Vijai Kumar Gupta



    Luz Cecilia García is a Professor at the Faculty of Agronomic Engineering of the Technical University of Manabí, Ecuador.

    Naga Raju Maddela is a Professor at the Faculty of Health Sciences of the Technical University of Manabí, Ecuador.

    Freddy Zambrano Gavilanes is a Professor at the Faculty of Agronomic Engineering of the Technical University of Manabí, Ecuador.

    Carolina Aguilar Duarte is Cocoa Director of the MOCCA (Maximizing Opportunities for Coffee and Cocoa in the Americas) program funded by Lutheran World Relief and the USDA.