Sustainable Practices in Geoenvironmental Engineering  book cover
2nd Edition

Sustainable Practices in Geoenvironmental Engineering

ISBN 9781466588462
Published September 25, 2014 by CRC Press
562 Pages 228 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

In the seven years since the publication of the first edition of Sustainable Practices in Geoenvironmental Engineering, the combination of population growth and increased exploitation of renewable and non-renewable natural resources has added increased stresses on the quality and health of the geoenvironment. This is especially true when viewed in the context of the growing demand for food and shelter, energy and mineral resources, and their resultant effects on the natural capital of the geoenvironment. Completely revised and updated, this second edition of a bestseller introduces and discusses the concept of "stressors" and their impacts on the geoenvironment.

See What’s New in the Second Edition:

  • Clear definition of the geoenvironment
  • New tools and remediation technologies, new management methods for geohazards, and enhanced coverage of social and economic sustainability
  • Innovative approaches and techniques for reaching geoenvironmental sustainability
  • More detail on treatment technologies, both in situ and ex situ
  • Discussion on the mitigation of geodisasters
  • Additional sections to discuss sustainability assessment protocols
  • Updated information on models for prediction of contaminant behavior

The authors explore the technologies that take into account targets, exposure routes (if applicable), future land use, acceptable risks, legislation, and resultant emissions/discharges in establishing the criteria and tools for evaluating technologies and protocols for environmental management of the impacted land. They then discuss how to choose the correct ones to use in different situations to protect the quality and health of natural resource and capital of the geoenvironment and ensure that these geoenvironmental natural resources and capital remain available for future generations and to develop innovative and sustainable techniques to make land more stable and safer.

Table of Contents

Geoenvironment Management and Sustainability
Impacts on the Geoenvironment
Geoenvironment Impacts from Natural Events and Disasters
Anthropogenic Forces and Impacts on Geoenvironment
Geoenvironment, Ecosystems, and Resources
Ecozones and Ecosystems
Natural Resources and Biodiversity in the Geoenvironment
Geoenvironment Sustainability
Geoenvironment as a Natural Resource Base
Impacts on the Geoenvironment
Impacts due to Population Growth
Impacts from Natural Resource Exploitation
Stressors and Sources
Natural Stressor Sources and Stressors
Anthropogenic Stressor Sources and Stressors
Geoenvironment Impacts on Soil and Water Resources
Impacts on Land Mass and Soil
Soil Functionality and Indicators
Impacts on Water and Water Resources
Renewable and Nonrenewable Geoenvironment Natural Resources
Rs and Beyond
Concluding Remarks

Stressors and Soil Contamination

Stressors and Impacts
Stressor Impacts on Soils
Biologically Mediated
Soil Contamination from Chemical Stressors
Contamination and Geoenvironmental Impacts
Reference Frame
Characterization of Geoenvironmental Impacts
Identifying and Assessing for Impact on the Geoenvironment
Stressor Sources
Nature of Impacts
Man-Made and Natural Combinations
Wastes, Contaminants, and Threats
Inorganic Contaminants
Arsenic (As)
Cadmium (Cd)
Chromium (Cr)
Copper (Cu)
Lead (Pb)
Nickel (Ni)
Zinc (Zn)
Organic Chemical Contaminants
Persistent Organic Chemical Pollutants
Surface and Subsurface Soils
Soil as a Resource Material
Nature of Soils
Soil Composition
Primary Minerals
Secondary Minerals
Soil Organic Matter
Oxides and Hydrous Oxides
Carbonates and Sulfates
Soil Properties Pertinent to Contaminant Transport and Fate
Specific Surface Area and Cation Exchange Capacity
Surface Properties
Contaminant Transport and Land Contamination
Mechanisms of Interaction of Heavy Metal Contaminants in Soil
Chemically Reactive Groups of Organic Chemical Contaminants
Partitioning of Contaminants and Partition Coefficients
Predicting Contaminant Transport
Geoenvironmental Land Management
Concluding Remarks

Sustainable Water Management

Geoenvironment Sustainable Water Management
Water Availability and Quality
Uses of Water and Its Importance
Hydrological Cycle
Human Interference on Infiltration and Runoff
Harvesting of Groundwater
Excessive Groundwater Abstraction and Land Subsidence
Uses of Water
Water Quality Characterization and Management
Classes of Contaminants Characterizing Chemical Stressors
Monitoring of Water Quality
Remote Sensing
Sustainable Water Treatment and Management
Techniques for Soil and Groundwater Treatment
Isolation and Containment
Extraction Treatment Techniques
Electrokinetic Applications
Natural Attenuation
Enhanced Natural Attenuation
In Situ Reactive Regions—Treatment Zones
Permeable Reactive Barriers
Ex Situ Processes
Groundwater and Water Management
Evaluation of the Sustainability of Remediation Alternatives
Concluding Remarks

Industrial Ecology and the Geoenvironment

Concept of Industrial Ecology
Geoenvironmental Life Cycle Assessment
Geoenvironment Impacts and Sustainability
Upstream, Midstream, and Downstream Industries
Mineral Mining and Processing Downstream Industries
Metallurgical Industries
Metal Fabrication and Processing
Nonmetal Mineral Resources Processing
Land Environment Impacts and Sustainability Indicators
Agroprocessing Industries
Leather Tanning Industry
Pulp and Paper Industry
Palm Oil Industries
Land Environment Impact and Sustainability Indicators
Petrochemical and Chemical Industries
Petrochemical Industries
Chemical Industries
Stressors and Impacts on Geoenvironment
Land Environment Impacts and Sustainability Indicators
Service Industries
Hospital Wastes and the Geoenvironment
Energy Production and the Geoenvironment
Fossil Fuel Energy Production
Geoenvironment Stressors
Nuclear Energy
Alternative Energy Sources and the Geoenvironment
Contaminating Discharges and Wastes
Physicochemical Properties and Processes
Partition Coefficients
Vapor Pressure
Concluding Remarks

Natural Resources Extraction: Stressors and Impact Management

Stressors and Impacts
Mining-Related Activities
Biohydrometallurgical Processes
Underground In Situ Hydrocarbon Extraction
Sulfide Minerals and Acidic Leachates
Acid Mine Drainage
Arsenic Release
Sustainability and Resource Exploitation
Resource Extraction and Stressor Impacts
Mining-Related Industries
Pit Mining
Discharges from Beneficiation and Processing: Stressor Sources
Solid Waste Materials and Stressors
Liquid Waste Streams, Discharge, and Stressors
Underground In Situ Hydrocarbon Extraction
Fluid Usage and Stressors
Tailings Discharges
Containment of Tailings
Nature of Contained Slurry Tailings
Geoenvironment Impacts and Management
Geoenvironmental Inventory and Land Use
Acid Mine Drainage Impact Mitigation
Acid Mine Drainage Management
Slurry Tailings Ponds Impact Management
Concluding Remarks
Mining Activities
Contaminated Water Management
Tailings Discharge and Mine Closure

Agricultural-Based Food Production Geoenvironment Stressors

Food Production
Geoenvironment Engineering: Sustainable Issues
Land Use for Food Production
Stressor Impacts on Water and Soil
Water Utilization
Soil and Water Quality Stressors
Chemical Soil Nutrients
Food Production Stressor Impacts
Impact on Health
Impact on Biodiversity
Managing Geoenvironment Stressor Impacts
Examples of Practices to Reduce Stressor Impacts
Soil Degradation
Soil Erosion
Integrated Crop Management
Water Quality
Source Control
Impact of Soil Additives
Mitigating Manure Treatment Stressors’ Impacts
Aerobic Composting
Anaerobic Digestion
Integrated Manure Treatment
Tools for Evaluation of Geoenviroment Impacts from Farming Stressor Sources
Agricultural Sustainability
Development of Analytical Tools
Indicators of Agroecosystem Sustainability
Concluding Remarks

Urbanization and the Geoenvironment

Land Uses by Urbanization
Impact of Urbanization on WEHAB
Impact on Water
Effect of Traffic and Energy Use
Implications on Health
Impact of Land Use
Impact of Urban Waste Disposal
Greenhouse Gases
Impact on Ecosystem Biodiversity
Impact Avoidance and Risk Minimization
Waste Management
Contamination Management and Prevention
Waste Reduction
Water Resources Management
Reduction in Energy Usage, Ozone Depletion, and Greenhouse Gases
Minimizing Impact on Biodiversity
Altering Transportation
Brownfield Redevelopment
Sustainability Indicators for Urbanization
Mitigation and Remediation of Impacts
Mitigation of Impact of Wastes
Fresh Kills Urban Dump, New York City, New York, USA
Vertical Barriers and Containment
Landfill Bioreactor
Natural Attenuation
Remediation of Urban Sites
Case Study of a Sustainable Urban Area
Concluding Remarks

Coastal Marine Environment Sustainability

Coastal Marine Environment and Impacts
Geosphere and Hydrosphere Coastal Marine Environment
Food Chain and Biological Concentration
Contamination of Sediments
Some Case Studies of Sediment Contamination
Sediment Quality Criteria
London Convention and Protocol
Quality of Marine Sediments
Standards and Guidelines
Background and Bioconcentration
Background Concentration
Sulfide and Its Effects on Marine Life
Toxic Sulfide
Guidelines for Sulfide for Surface Water and Sediments
Connecting Problems of Geoenvironment and Bioenvironment
Heavy Metals
Profile of Heavy Metal Concentration
Minamata Disease
Organic Chemical Contaminants
Chlorinated Organic Microcontaminants
Rehabilitation of Coastal Marine Environment
Removal of Contaminated Suspended Solids
Confined Sea Areas
Large Bodies of Water
Continuous Removal of Suspended Solids
Sand Capping
Removal of Contaminated Sediments by Dredging
Treatment of Dredged Sediments
Removal of Contaminated Sediments by Resuspension
Creation of a Natural Purification System
Creation of Sand Beaches and Tidal Flats
Creation of Seaweed Swards
Sea Disposal of Waste
Coastal Erosion
Concluding Remarks

Contaminants and Land Environment Sustainability Indicators

Nature of Indicators
Contaminants and Geoenvironment Indicators
Prescribing Indicators
Assessment of Interaction Impacts
Sustainability Concerns
Surface Discharge: Hydrological Drainage, Spills, and Dumping
Subsurface Discharges
Contaminant Transport and Fate
Analytical and Predictive Tools
Basic Elements of Interactions between Dissolved Solutes and Soil Fractions
Elements of Abiotic Reactions between Organic Chemicals and Soil Fractions
Reactions in Porewater
Surface Complexation and Partitioning
Partitioning of Inorganic Contaminants
Organic Chemical Contaminants
Persistence and Fate
Biotransformation and Degradation of Organic Chemicals and Heavy Metals
Alkanes, Alkenes, and Cycloalkanes
Polycyclic, Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Xylene
Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether
Halogenated Aliphatic and Aromatic Compounds
Heavy Metals
Prediction of Transport and Fate of Contaminants
Mass Transport
Transport Prediction
Chemical Reactions and Transport Predictions
Geochemical Speciation and Transport Predictions
Concluding Remarks

Geoenvironment Impact Mitigation and Management

Geoenvironmental Impacts
Types of Stressors
Impact Mitigation and Management
Site Functionality and Restoration
Site Functionality
Choice and Use of Attributes
Site Restoration
Stressor Impacts and Mitigation
Geo-Disaster Mitigation and Protection
Naturally Occurring Events
Anthropogenic Actions
Chemical Stressors: Contaminants
Soils for Contaminant Impact Mitigation and Management
Physical and Mechanical Properties
Soil Microstructure Controls on Hydraulic Transmission
Microstructure, Wetted Surfaces, and Transport Properties
Chemical Properties
Cation Exchange
Solubility and Precipitation
Speciation and Complexation
Biological Properties
Natural Attenuation Capability of Soils
Natural Attenuation by Dilution and Retention
Dilution and Retention
Biodegradation and Biotransformation
Petroleum Hydrocarbons: Alkanes, Alkenes, and Cycloalkanes
Gasoline Components BTEX and MTBE
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Halogenated Aliphatic and Aromatic Compounds
Oxidation–Reduction Reactions
Natural Attenuation and Impact Management
Enhancement of Natural Attenuation Capability
Soil Buffering Capacity Manipulation
Biostimulation and Bioaugmentation
Biochemical and Biogeochemical Aids
NA Treatment Zones for Impact Mitigation
Permeable Reactive Barriers and NA
Lines of Evidence
Organic Chemical Compounds
Evidence of Success
Engineered Mitigation–Control Systems
Remediation as Control–Management
Concluding Remarks

Remediation and Management of Contaminated Soil

Physical Remediation Technologies
Confined Disposal
Extraction Processes
Physical Separation
Soil Vapor Extraction
Soil Flushing
Soil Washing
Chemical/Thermal Remediation
Electrokinetic Remediation
Thermal Extraction
Biological Remediation
Slurry Reactors
Bioconversion Processes
In Situ Bioremediation
Comparison between Treatment Technologies
Treatment Technologies Overview
Design of a Remediation Process
Case Study Using a Sustainability Approach
Case Study for a Benzene-Contaminated Site
Concluding Remarks

Sustainable Ground Improvement Technique for Geo-Disaster Mitigation

Soil Origin and Stability
Soft Soils and Stability
Soft Soil Engineering and Ground Improvement
Carbonate Diagenesis: Carbonate as a Cementing Agent
Definition of Carbonate Diagenesis
Origin and Fate of Carbonates
Sea Bottoms and Ocean Floors
Coral Reef and Shells in Coastal Areas
Microbially Induced Carbonates
Formation of Sedimentary Rock due to Carbonate Diagenesis
Formations of Carbonate Nodules and Sandstones
Carbonate Diagenesis Summary
The Case for Using Diagenetic Process in Ground Improvement
Artificial Diagenesis
Ureolytic Bacteria
Chemical Reactions in Artificial Diagenesis
Urease Activity
Carbonate Precipitation
Definition and Measurement of Carbonate Content
Artificial Diagenesis for Geo-Disaster Mitigation
Injection of Microbes and Reactive Solution
Increased Strength due to Artificial Diagenesis
Unconfined Compressive Strength
Triaxial Compressive Strength
Cone Penetration Resistance
Concepts in Design
Concluding Remarks

Sustainable Geoenvironmental Engineering Practice

Undeniable Facts
Geotechnical to Geoenvironmental Engineering Practice
Unsustainable Actions and Events
Accidents and Unplanned Events
Wastes and Discharges
Renewable Geoenvironment Natural Resources
Sustainability of Renewable Nonliving Natural Resources
Geoenvironmental Management of Soil and Water Resources
Adverse Stressor Impacts
Management for Sustainability Goals
Protection of Soil and Water Resources
Water and Soil Quality Indicators
Quality and Index
Example of SQI Development
Water Quality Index WQI
Sustainability Practice Examples
Rehabilitation of Airport Land
Sustainability Indicators: Observations and Comments
Sustainable Mining Land Conversion
Sustainability Indicators: Observations and Comments
Agriculture Sustainability Study
Sustainability Indicators: Observations and Comments
Petroleum Oil Well Redevelopment
Sustainability Indicators: Observations and Comments
Mining and Geoenvironmental Sustainability
Sustainability Indicators: Observations and Comments
Organic Urban Waste Management in Europe
Sediment Reuse: Orion Project, Port of New York and New Jersey
A Case Study Scheme for Sustainable Geoenvironment Practice: Remediation of Cesium-Contaminated Surface Soils
Introduction and Problem Setting
Rehabilitation Schemes
Segregation of Particles in Water
Technological Images
Demonstration Pilot Tests on Contaminated Sediments and Soils
Full-Scale Application
Assessment of Sustainable Practice Success
Concluding Remarks: Sensible Practice for a Sustainable Geoenvironment

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Dr. Raymond N. Yong is the William Scott Professor Emeritus at McGill University, Canada, and Emeritus Professor at the University of Wales Cardiff (Cardiff University), UK. He has authored and co-authored eleven other textbooks, over five hundred refereed papers in the various journals in the disciplines of Geoenvironmental Engineering and Earth Science, and holds 52 patents. He is a Fellow of the Royal Society (Canada), and a Chevalier de l’Ordre National du Québec. He and his students were amongst the early researchers in Geoenvironmental Engineering engaged in research on the physico-chemical properties and behaviour of soils, their use in buffer/barriers for HLW (high-level radioactive waste) and HSW (hazardous solid waste) containment and isolation, and restoration/remediation of contaminated sites. He and his colleagues are currently engaged in research on Geoenvironmental sustainability.

Dr. Catherine N. Mulligan holds a Concordia Research Chair in Geoenvironmental Sustainability (Tier I) and is Full Professor and Associate Dean, Research and Graduate Studies of the Faculty of Engineering and Computer Science of Concordia University, Canada. She has authored more than 80 refereed papers in various journals, authored, co-edited or co-authored five other books, holds three patents and has supervised to completion more than 40 graduate students. She is the Director of the new Concordia Institute of Water, Energy and Sustainable Systems. The new Institute trains students in sustainable development practices and performs research into new systems, technologies and solutions for environmental sustainability.

Dr. Masaharu Fukue is a Full Professor at Tokai University, Japan. He has studied and taught geoenvironmental engineering and geotechnical engineering for 36 years, since 1978, in Marine Science and Technology, Tokai University. He has co-authored two other textbooks, over one hundred refereed papers in various journals, and holds 6 patents. He has recently established the Japanese Geotechnical Association for Housing Disaster Prevention to apply the theory and practice of innovative microbial cementing process (one of his patented process). In addition, another of his Japanese patents (re-suspension technique for sediment rehabilitation) is currently being applied in Fukushima, Japan, in the aftermath of the March, 2011 East-Japan great earthquake and accompanying tsunami. Both projects demonstrate the interdependencies between geoenvironmental engineering and geotechnical engineering, and the need to apply sustainability principles in the practice of both disciplines.