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2nd Edition

Synchronous Generators




ISBN 9781498723565
Published October 5, 2015 by CRC Press
478 Pages - 347 B/W Illustrations

 
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Book Description

Synchronous Generators, the first of two volumes in the Electric Generators Handbook, offers a thorough introduction to electrical energy and electricity generation, including the basic principles of electric generators. The book devotes a chapter to the most representative prime mover models for transients used in active control of various generators. Then, individual chapters explore large- and medium-power synchronous generator topologies, steady state, modeling, transients, control, design, and testing. Numerous case studies, worked-out examples, sample results, and illustrations highlight the concepts.

Fully revised and updated to reflect the last decade’s worth of progress in the field, this Second Edition adds new sections that:

  • Discuss high-power wind generators with fewer or no permanent magnets (PMs)
  • Cover PM-assisted DC-excited salient pole synchronous generators
  • Present multiphase synchronous machine inductances via the winding function method
  • Consider the control of autonomous synchronous generators
  • Examine additional optimization design issues
  • Illustrate the optimal design of a large wind generator by the Hooke–Jeeves method
  • Detail the magnetic equivalent circuit population-based optimal design of synchronous generators
  • Address online identification of synchronous generator parameters
  • Explain the small-signal injection online technique
  • Explore line switching (on or off) parameter identification for isolated grids
  • Describe synthetic back-to-back load testing with inverter supply

The promise of renewable, sustainable energy rests on our ability to design innovative power systems that are able to harness energy from a variety of sources. Synchronous Generators, Second Edition supplies state-of-the-art tools necessary to design, validate, and deploy the right power generation technologies to fulfill tomorrow's complex energy needs.

Table of Contents

Electric Energy and Electric Generators
Introduction
Major Energy Sources
Limitations of Electric Power Generation
Electric Power Generation
From Electric Generators to Electric Loads
Summary
References

Principles of Electric Generators
Three Types of Electric Generators
Synchronous Generators
Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generators
Homopolar Synchronous Generator
Induction Generator
Wound-Rotor Doubly Fed Induction Generator
Parametric Generators
Electric Generator Applications
High-Power Wind Generators
Summary
References

Prime Movers
Introduction
Steam Turbines
Steam Turbine Modeling
Speed Governors for Steam Turbines
Gas Turbines
Diesel Engines
Stirling Engines
Hydraulic Turbines
Wind Turbines
Summary
References

Large- and Medium-Power Synchronous Generators: Topologies and Steady State
Introduction
Construction Elements
Excitation Magnetic Field
Two-Reaction Principle of Synchronous Generators
Armature Reaction Field and Synchronous Reactances
Equations for Steady State with Balanced Load
Phasor Diagram
Inclusion of Core Losses in the Steady-State Model
Autonomous Operation of Synchronous Generators
SG Operation at Power Grid (in Parallel)
Unbalanced Load Steady-State Operation
Measuring Xd, Xq, Z, Z0
Phase-to-Phase Short Circuit
Synchronous Condenser
PM-Assisted DC-Excited Salient Pole Synchronous Generators
Multiphase Synchronous Machine Inductances via Winding Function Method
Summary
References

Synchronous Generators: Modeling for Transients
Introduction
Phase-Variable Model
dq Model
Per Unit (P.U.) dq Model
Steady State via the dq Model
General Equivalent Circuits
Magnetic Saturation Inclusion in the dq Model
Operational Parameters
Standstill Time-Domain Response Provoked Transients
Standstill Frequency Response
Simplified Models for Power System Studies
Mechanical Transients
Small Disturbance Electromechanical Transients
Large Disturbance Transients Modeling
Finite-Element SG Modeling
SG Transient Modeling for Control Design
Summary
References

Control of Synchronous Generators in Power Systems
Introduction
Speed Governing Basics
Time Response of Speed Governors
Automatic Generation Control
Time Response of Speed (Frequency) and Power Angle
Voltage and Reactive Power Control Basics
Automatic Voltage Regulation Concept
Exciters
Exciter’s Modeling
Basic AVRs
Underexcitation Voltage
Power System Stabilizers
Coordinated AVR-PSS and Speed Governor Control
FACTS-Added Control of SG
Subsynchronous Oscillations
Subsynchronous Resonance
Note on Autonomous Synchronous Generators’ Control
Summary
References

Design of Synchronous Generators
Introduction
Specifying Synchronous Generators for Power Systems
Output Power Coefficient and Basic Stator Geometry
Number of Stator Slots
Design of Stator Winding
Design of Stator Core
Salient: Pole Rotor Design
Damper Cage Design
Design of Cylindrical Rotors
Open-Circuit Saturation Curve
On-Load Excitation mmf F1n
Inductances and Resistances
Excitation Winding Inductances
Damper Winding Parameters
Solid Rotor Parameters
SG Transient Parameters and Time Constants
Electromagnetic Field Time Harmonics
Slot Ripple Time Harmonics
Losses and Efficiency
Exciter Design Issues
Optimization Design Issues
Generator/Motor Issues
Summary
References

Testing of Synchronous Generators
Acceptance Testing
Testing for Performance (Saturation Curves, Segregated Losses, and Efficiency)
Excitation Current under Load and Voltage Regulation
Need for Determining Electrical Parameters
Per Unit Values
Tests for Parameters under Steady State
Tests to Estimate the Subtransient and Transient Parameters
Transient and Subtransient Parameters from d and q Axis Flux Decay Test at Standstill
Subtransient Reactances from Standstill Single-Frequency AC Tests
Standstill Frequency Response Tests
Online Identification of SG Parameters
Summary
References

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Author(s)

Biography

Ion Boldea is a professor of electrical engineering at the University Politehnica Timişoara, Romania. A life fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), Professor Boldea has worked, published, lectured, and consulted extensively on the theory, design, and control of linear and rotary electric motors and generators for more than 40 years.