Using a framework based on principles of teaching and learning, this guide for teachers and teacher trainees provides a wealth of suggestions for helping learners at all levels of proficiency develop their listening and speaking skills and fluency. By following these suggestions, which are organized around four strands – meaning-focused input, meaning-focused output, language-focused learning, and fluency development – teachers will be able to design and present a balanced program for their students.
Teaching ESL/EFL Listening and Speaking, and its companion text, Teaching ESL/EFL Reading and Writing, are similar in format and the kinds of topics covered, but do not need to be used together. Drawing on research and theory in applied linguistics, their focus is strongly hands-on, featuring
- easily applied principles,
- a large number of useful teaching techniques, and
- guidelines for testing and monitoring.
All Certificate, Diploma, Masters and Doctoral courses for teachers of English as a second or foreign language include a teaching methods component. The texts are designed for and have been field tested in such programs.
Table of Contents
@contents: Selected Contents:
Chapter 1 Parts and goals of a listening and speaking course
The four strands
A commonsense justification of the four strands
Learning through listening and reading
Learning through speaking and writing
Becoming fluent in listening, speaking, reading and writing
Balancing the four strands
Integrating the four strands
Principles and the four strands
Chapter 2 Beginning to listen and speak in another language
What should they learn?
How should the teaching and learning be done?
Practising sentence patterns
Guiding listening and speaking
Techniques for early meaning-focused speaking
Planning a listening and speaking programme for beginners
Chapter 3 Listening
Listening and language learning
Advanced listening: Notetaking
How to take notes
Learning how to take notes
Monitoring meaning focused listening
Chapter 4 Learning through interaction and negotiation
Using written input to encourage negotiation
Using information distribution to encourage negotiation
Factors affecting the amount and type of negotiation
Using learner training to encourage negotiation
Learning through non-negotiated interaction
Understanding language teaching tasks: Ranking
What is a ranking task?
What can you use ranking tasks for?
How can you make and prepare for ranking tasks?
What material can you base ranking tasks on?
Monitoring a ranking task
Monitoring learners beginning to speak
Chapter 5 Learning through pushed output
The nature of formal speaking
Teaching formal speaking
A process approach to formal speaking
Guidelines for presenting a formal talk
Chapter 6 Pronunciation
The place of form focused pronunciation instruction
Factors affecting the learning of another sound system
Procedures and techniques
Fitting pronunciation into a course
Chapter 7 Deliberate teaching
The value and limits of language-focused learning
Deliberate vocabulary learning
The requirements of language-focused vocabulary instruction
Techniques and procedures
Deliberate grammar learning
The causes of error
The effect of correction
Fitting language-focused learning into a course
Chapter 8 Dictation and related activities
Variations of dictation
Chapter 9 Developing fluency
The nature of fluency
Fluency and accuracy
Designing fluency activities
Fitting fluency into a course
Developing fluency in listening and speaking
Techniques for developing fluency in listening
Techniques for developing fluency in speaking
Monitoring fluency tasks
Chapter 10 Testing
Testing listening and speaking
Appendix 1 The survival syllabus
Appendix 2 The most useful words for beginning graded reading
Appendix 3 Topic types
Appendix 4 Topics for listening and speaking
I.S.P. Nation is Professor of Applied Linguistics in the School of Linguistics and Applied Language Studies at Victoria University in Wellington, New Zealand.
Jonathan Newton is a senior lecturer in the School of Linguistics and Applied Language Studies, Victoria University in Wellington, New Zealand.