Technical Proceedings of the 2004 NSTI Nanotechnology Conference and Trade Show, Volume 1: 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

Technical Proceedings of the 2004 NSTI Nanotechnology Conference and Trade Show, Volume 1

1st Edition

Edited by NanoScience & Technology Inst

CRC Press

521 pages

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Paperback: 9780972842273
pub: 2007-06-08
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Table of Contents

Technical Proceedings of the 2004 NSTI Nanotechnology Conference and Trade Show, Volume 1

Chapter 1:

Bio Nano Systems and Chemistry

Forisomes: MechanoProteins that Exert Force in Contraction and Expansion

M. Knoblauch, G.A. Noll, D. Prüfer, H. Jaag, M.E. Fontanellaz, I. SchneiderHüther, A.J.E. van Bel and W.S. Peters

Fraunhofer Institute IME, DE

Development of a SelfAssembled MusclePowered Piezoelectric Microgenerator

J. Xi, E. Dy, MT Hung and C. Montemagno


Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields Trigger Intracellular Signals in Human Lymphocytes

P.T. Vernier, Y. Sun, L. Marcu, C.M. Craft and M.A. Gundersen

University of Southern California, US

Viruses as Optical Probes

ES Kwak, C. Chen, C. Cheng Kao, W.L. Schaich and B. Dragnea

University of Indiana, US

pH Dependent Optical Properties of Surface Modified Gold Nanoparticles Using a Bovine Serum Albumin Coating

Y. Xu, K.A. Linares, K. Meehan, B.J. Love and N.G. Love

Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, US

Internalization of Nanoparticles in the Middle Ear Epithelium in Response to an External Magnetic Field: Generating a Force

K. Dormer, C. Seeney, A. Mamedov and F. Mondalek

University of Oklahoma, Coll. of Med., US

High Throughput insilico Screening against Flexible Protein Receptors

H. Merlitz and W. Wenzel

Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, DE

Chapter 2:

Bio Nano Analysis and Characterization

Overview of Overlapping Bio and Nano Technologies

S. Iyer


Detection of DNA Hybridyzation with Impedance Amplifying Labels

KS Ma, H. Zhou, A. Fischetti, J. Zoval and M. Madou

University of California, Irvine, US

Functional Nanoarrays for Protein Biomarker Profiling

M. Lynch, C. Mosher, J. Huff, S. Nettikadan, J. Xu and E. Henderson

BioForce Nanosciences, Inc., US

An ChipbasedInstant Protein Micro Array Formation and Detection System

FG Tseng, C.E. Ho, M.H. Chen, K.Y. Hung, C.J. Su, Y.F. Chen, H.M. Huang and CC Chieng

National Tsing Hua University, TW

HighResolution Electrochemical In Situ Printing

R.D. Egeland and E.M. Southern

Oxamer & Oxford Gene Technology, UK

Microfabricated FluorescenceActivated Cell Sorter with Hydrodynamic Flow Manipulation

H. Bang, C. Chung, J.K. Kim, S. Kim, S. Chung, DC Han and J.K. Chang

School of Mechanical & Aerospace Eng., Seoul National University, KR

Development of a SlugFlow PCR Chip with Minimum Heating Cycle Times

S. Hardt, D. Dadic, F. Doffing, K.S. Drese, G. Münchow and O. Sörensen

Institute of Microtechnology Mainz, DE

Composable System Simulation of Dispersion in Complex Electrophoretic Separation Microchips

Y. Wang, Q. Lin and T. Mukherjee

Carnegie Mellon University, US

Visualizing Individual Rhodopsin (a G ProteinCoupled Receptor) Molecules in Native Disk and Reconstituted Membranes via Atomic Force Microscopy

E.J. Choi, A.J. Jin, SL Niu, P.D. Smith and B.J. Litman

National Institutes of Health, US

SampleShunting Based PCR Microfluidic Device

PA Auroux, P.J.R. Day and A. Manz

Imperial College, UK

Highly Efficient Electropermeabilization of Mammalian Cells Using Microelectroporation Chip

Y.S. Shin, J.K. Kim, S.H. Lim, Y.K. Lee, K. Cho, Y. Lee, S. Chung, C. Chung, DC Han and J.K. Chang

Seoul National University, KR

Effect of Substratum Morphology on Cell Behavior

WT Su, IM Chu, JY Yang and CD Lin

National Nano Device Laboratories, TW

An Injector Component Model for Complete Microfluidic Electrokinetic Separation Systems

R. Magargle, J.F. Hoburg and T. Mukherjee

Carnegie Mellon University, US

Dielectrophoresis (DEP) of Cells and Microparticle in PDMS Microfluidic Channels

T.T. Kanagasabapathi, C.J. Backhouse and K.V.I.S. Kaler

University of Calgary, CA

Dry Microarrays: A Generalized Data Source for Genome and Proteome Analysis

G. Sampath

The College of New Jersey, US

Molecular Simulation of DNA Microarrays an Application of 2D particle mesh Ewald algorithm

T. Watanabe, M. Kawata and U. Nagashima

National Institute of Advanced Industrial and Science and Technology, Grid Technology Research Cente, JP

Development and Characterization of a 2D microchipbased Protein separation system.

J.J. Feng, V Olazábal, J.A. Olivares, S. Sundaram, S. Krishnamoorthy and S. Iyer

Los Alamos National Laboratory, US

Amplification of Protein Adsorption on Micro/Nanostructures for Microarray Applications

E.P. Ivanova, Y.V. Alekseeva, D.K. Pham, L. Filipponi and D.V. Nicolau

Swinburne University, AU

Evaluation of Electric Impedance Spectra for Single BioCells with Microfluidic Devices using Combined FEMLAB/HSPICE Simulated Models

V. Senez, T. Yamamoto, B. Poussard, T. Fukuba, J.M. Capron and T. Fujii

LIMMS/CNRSIIS University of Tokyo, JP

Chapter 3:

Bio Molecular Motors

Actin Adsorbed on HOPG and Mica Substrates: Characterization and Manipulation by Atomic Force Microscopy

D.V. Nicolau, G.S. Watson, C. Cahill, J. Blach and S. Myhra

Swinburne University, AU

A Molecular Motor that Links the Biological and Silicon Worlds

T. Robinson, A. Blundell, C.F. Dutta and K. Firman

University of Portsmouth, UK

Viral Protein Linear (VPL) NanoActuators

A. Dubey, G. Sharma, C. Mavroidis, S.M. Tomassone, K.P. Nikitczuk and M.L. Yarmush

Northeastern University, US

Biomimetic Molecules as Building Blocks for Synthetic Muscles A Proposal

A.H. Flood, J. Badjic, JY Han, C. Pentecost, B.H. Northrop, S.J. Cantrill, K.N. Houk and J.F. Stoddart


MEMS Biofluidic Device Concept Based on a Supramolecular Motor

M.J. Knieser, R. Pidaparti, F. Kadioglu, R.D. Harris, M.R. Knieser and A. Hsu

Indiana Univerisity Purdue University Indianapolis, US

A Mechanistic Model of the Motility of Actin Filaments on Myosin

D.V. Nicolau_Jr. and D.V. Nicolau

Swinburne University, AU

A Proposal Conceptualization of a Hybrid BioMotoReductor Actuator and the "Virtual Shaft" Hypothesis

M.A. Venegas

Nano Science and Technology Institute, MX

Chapter 4:

Ion Channels

The Dielectric Boundary Force in Ion Channels: The Case of Gramicidin

B. Nadler, U. Hollerbach and R.S. Eisenberg

Yale University, US

Brownian Dynamics Simulation of Transport Properties in Potassium Ion Channels

S. Aboud, D. Marreiro, M. Saraniti and R.S. Eisenberg

IIT/Rush University, US

BioMOCA: A Transport Monte Carlo Approach to Ion Channel Simulation

T.A. van der Straaten, G. Kathawala and U. Ravaioli

Beckman Institute, University of Illinois, US

Hybrid MDPNP Simulations of the AlphaHemolysin Open Ion Currents

I. Cozmuta, J.T. O'Keeffe and V. Stolc

Eloret Corp, NASA Ames Research Center, US

Toward an Integrated Computational Environment for Multiscale Computational Design of Nanoscale Ion Channel Semiconductors

S. Natarajan, S. Varma, Y. Tang, S. Parker, J. Mashl and E. Jakobsson


Chapter 5:

Bio Nano Computational Methods and Applications

Numerical Modeling of Diffusion in Extracellular Space of Biological Cell Clusters and Tumors

J. Berthier, F. Rivera and P. Caillat


Mathematical Modeling for Immunocolloid Labeling

C. Raymond and P. Milewksi

New Jersey Institute of Technology, US

Crystallization of Membrane Protein Nanoparticles

A. Shiryayev, E.F. Holby and J.D. Gunton

Lehigh University, US

Monte Carlo Study of Models of Membrane Proteins

T.P. Connor, D.L. Pagan, A. Shiryayev and J.D. Gunton

Lehigh University, US

Biomolecule Electrostatic Optimization with an Implicit Hessian

J.P. Bardhan, J.H. Lee, M.D. Altman, S. Leyffer, S. Benson, B. Tidor and J.K. White

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, US

Self Assembly of Globular Protein Nanoparticles

A. Shiryayev and J.D. Gunton

Lehigh University, US

A Monte Carlo Study of a Model of Globular Protein Nanoparticles

D.L. Pagan, M.E. Gracheva and J.D. Gunton

Lehigh University, US

DNA and Estrogen Receptor Interaction Revealed by the Fragment Molecular Orbital Method Implementation of SCF Convergence

T. Watanabe, Y. Inadomi, S. Tanaka and U. Nagashima

National Institute of Advanced Industrial and Science and Technology, JP

Development of an Advanced Simulation System for the Analysis of Particle Dynamics in LASER based Protein Ion Sources

A. Hieke

Ciphergen Biosystems, Inc., US

Resolved Particle Simulations of Microsphere/Cellbased Bioanalytic Systems

K. Pant, B.F. Romanowicz and S. Sundaram

CFD Research Corporation, US

Chapter 6:

Bio Micro Sensors and Systems

Modeling of the Dielectrophoretic Forces Acting upon Biological Cells: A Numerical Comparison between Finite Element/Boundary Element Maxwell Stress Tensor Methods and Dipole Point Approach

A. Benselama, P. Pham, É. Canot


An Approach for Fabrication of Polymerbased Bioanalytical Microfluidic Devices

M. Wang, KY Weng, CC Huang, WP Liu and LY Yao

Industrial Technology Research Institute, TW

A Generic Sensor for Ultra Low Analyte Concentration Detection

J. Hedley, C.J. McNeil, J.S. Burdess, A.J. Harris, M.G. Dobson, G. Suarez and H. Berney

Newcastle University, UK

Characterization of Micropumps for Biomedical Applications

Y. Haik, J. Hendrix, M. Kilani, P. Galambus and CJ Chen

Florida State University, US

Modeling of Dielectrophoresis for Handling Bioparticles in Microdevices

G.F. Yao

Flow Science Inc., US

QuadruptletsMicroneedle Array for Blood Extraction

S. Khumpuang, G. Kawaguchi and S. Sugiyama

Ritsumeikan University, JP

A Disposable Glucose Biosensor Based on Diffusional Mediator Dispersed in Nanoparticulate Membrane on ScreenPrinted Carbon Electrode

Z. Gao, F. Xie, M. Shariff, M. Arshad and J.Y. Ying

Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, SG

A Microfluidic System with Nonenzymatic Glucose Sensor

S. Joo, S. Park, H. Lim, T.D. Chung and HC Kim

Seoul National University, KR

Glucometers to Detect for Heart Attack

Y. Haik, A. Qablan, A. Zwolinski, CJ Chen

Florida State University, US

Optical Detection of Integrin AvB3 Using a Nanostructured Lipid Bilayer Membrane Biosensor

O. Worsfold and T. Nishiya

Fujirebio Inc., JP

MicroPatterning of Ionic Reservoirs within a Double Bilayer Lipid Membrane to Fabricate a 2D Array of IonChannel Switch Based Electrochemical Biosensors

J.M. Sansiñena, C.K. Yee, A. Sapuri, B.I. Swanson, A. Redondo and A.N. Parikh

Los Alamos National Laboratory, US

Potentiometric Biosensors Based on Silicon and Porous Silicon

I. Basu, R.V. Subramanian, A. Mathew, A. Chadha and E. Bhattacharya

Indian Institute of Technology Madras, IN

BioImpedance Sensing Device (BISD) for Detection of Human CD4+ Cells

N.N. Mishra, S. Retterrer, T.J. Zieziulewicz, M. Isaacson, D. Szarowski, D.E. Mousseau, D.A. Lawrence and J.N. Turner

New York City Department of Health, US

Behavior of Living Human Neural Networks on Microelectrode Array Support

R. Pizzi, F. Gelain, A. Fantasia, D. Rossetti and A. Vescovi

University of Milan, IT

Glucose Sensors Based on Glucose Oxidase Immobilized in PolypyrrolePolyacrylamide Microparticles

E. LópezCabarcos, J. RubioRetama, D. Mecerreyes and B. LópezRuiz

University Complutense, ES

Chapter 7:

Micro Fluidics and Nanoscale Transport

Nanostructure and Phase Transitions in the Liquid Phase of Metallic and Nonmetallic Elements

G.C. Vezzoli

Institute for the Basic Sciences, US

Application of Local Radial Basis Functionbased Differential Quadrature Method in Micro Flows

D. Xu, H. Ding and C. Shu

Agency for Science Technology and Research, SG

Numerical Visualization and Quantification of Chaotic Mixing for Micromixers

T.G. Kang and T.H. Kwon

Pohang University of Science and Technology, KR

A Low Cost Polymer Based PiezoActuated Micropump for Drug Delivery System

H. Liu, A.A.O. Tay, S.Y.M. Wan and G.C. Lim

Institute of Materials Research & Engineering, SG

Galilean Invariant Viscosity Term for an Athermal Integer Lattice Boltzmann Automaton in three Dimensions

M.C. Geier, A. Greiner and J.G. Korvink

IMTEK, Albert Ludwigs University Freiburg im Breisgau, DE

Liquid Disintegration: Investigation of Physics by Simulation

J. Zeng and T. Korsmeyer

Coventor, Inc., US

Capillary Passive Valve in Microfluidic System

H. Cho, HY Kim, J.Y. Kang and T.S. Kim

Microsystem Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, KR

Clogging Pressures of Bubbles in Microchannel Contractions: Theory and Experiments

M.J. Jensen, X. Wang, D. Attinger and H. Bruus

Mikroelektronik Centret, DTU, DK

InPlane Micropump: Design Optimization

J. Sin, W.H. Lee and H.E. Stephanou


Analysis of Blood Extraction from a Lancet Puncture

R.J. Kuriger and B.F. Romanowicz

CFD Research Corporation, US

Polymeric Micropump with SU8 Check Valves Assembled by Lamination Technique

T.Q. Truong and N.T. Nguyen

Nanyang Technological University, SG

Electrokinetic Instability Mechanism of Doublelayered Miscible Fluids with Different Electrolyte Concentrations in DC Electric Field

J.W. Park, K.H. Kang and K.Y. Huh

Pohang University of Science and Technology, KR

Flow Simulation of a Microfluidic Analog of the FourRoll Mill

F.R. Phelan_Jr. and S.D. Hudson


SOI Processing of a Ring Electrokinetic Chaotic Micromixer

Y.T. Zhang, H. Chen, I. Mezic, C.D. Meinhart, L. Petzold and N.C. MacDonald

university of california, santa barbara, US

Spacific Flow Control Systems Using IR Laser Induced SolGel Transfer of Hydrogel

J. Tanaka, Y. Shirasaki, M. Tatsuoka, T. Funatsu, S. Watabe, S. Shoji, T. Edura, J. Mizuno and Y. Wada

Waseda University, JP

Optimization of Mixing in an Active Micromixing Device

G. Mathew, I. Mezic, R. Serban and L. Petzold

University of California, Santa Barbara, US

Droplet Movement Induced by Nano Assembled Molecules And Micro Textures

FG Tseng and S.C. Chien

National Tsing Hua University, ESS Dept., TW

Analysis of ACDriven Electroosmotic Flow in a Microchannel Packed with Microspheres

Y.J. Kang, C. Yang and X.Y. Huang

Nanyang Technological University, SG

An Effective Passive Micromixer Employing Herringbone Structure

CF Kung, CF Chen, CC Chu and FG Tseng

IAM, National Taiwan University, TW

Novel 2D Interfaces for NanoelectrosprayMass Spectrometry

S. Arscott, S. Le Gac, C. Druon, P. Tabourier and C. Rolando


DEP Particle Dynamics and the Steady Drag Assumption

S.T. Wereley, I. Whitacre, R. Bashir and H.B. Li

Purdue University, US

Chapter 8:

MEMS Design and Application

A New Method to Design Pressure Sensor Diaphragm

X. Wang, B. Li, S. Lee, Y. Sun, H.T. Roman, K. Chin and K.R. Farmer

New Jersey Institute of Technology, US

Lattice Boltzmann Simulations Comparing Conventional and a Heat Conduction Based FlowThrough PCR MicroDevices

T. Mautner

SPAWAR Systems Center San Diego, US

Geometrical Effects in Mechanical Characterizing of Microneedle for Biomedical Applications

P. Aggarwal and C. Johnston

University of Calgary, CA

Design and Manufacturing of a Miniaturized 2.45GHz Bulk Acoustic Filter by High Aspect Ratio Etching Process

CH Lin, HR Chen, CH Du and W. Fang

National TsingHua University, TW

A MEMS Tunable Inductor

I. ZineElAbidine, M. Okoniewski and J.G. McRory

University of Calgary and TRLabs, CA

Design & Simulation of a Mechanical Amplifier for Inertial Sensing Applications

M.N. Kham, R. Houlihan and M. Kraft

Southampton University, UK

Micromachined Thermal Multimorph Actuators Fabricated by Bulketched MUMPs Process

A. Tuantranont and V.M. Bright

National Electronics and Computer Technology Center (NECTEC), TH

Micromachined Piezoresistive Tactile Sensor Array Fabricated by Bulketched MUMPs Process

A. Tuantranont, T. Lomas and V.M. Bright

National Electronics and Computer Technology Center (NECTEC), TH

Modelling and Fabrication of Microspring Thermal Actuator

J.K. Luo, A.J. Flewitt, M. Spearing, N.A. Fleck and W.I. Milne

University of Cambridge, UK

The Application of Parametric Excitation to a MicroRing Gyroscope

B.J. Gallacher, J.S. Burdess, A.J. Harris and J. Hedley

Insat University of Newcastle, UK

A Nanoscale Composite Material for Enhanced Damage Tolerance in MEMS Applications

A. Paranjpye, N.C. MacDonald and G.E. Beltz

University of California, Santa Barbara, US

Novel Monolithic Micro Droplet Generator

C.K. Chung, C.J. Lin, C.C. Chen, S.W. Chuang, Y.J. Fang and Y.Z. Hong

National Cheng Kung University, TW

A Novel Fabrication Technique of Cylindrical Ion Traps using Low Temperature Cofired Ceramic Tapes

A. Chaudhary, F.H.W. van Amerom, S. Bhansali and R.T. Short

University of South Florida, US

Micromachined IIIV Multimorph Actuator Model and Design using Simulated Annealing (SA)Based Global Optimization

A. Ongkodjojo, F.E.H. Tay and R. Akkipeddi

Institute of Materials Research & Engineering, SG

Optimized Distributive uMixing by Chaotic Multilamination

F. Schönfeld, K.S. Drese, S. Hardt, V. Hessel and C. Hofmann

Institut für Mikrotechnik Mainz -(IMM), DE

Analysis of Micromachined PZT Membranes for MEMS Power

J.H. Cho, M.J. Anderson, R.F. Richards, D.F. Bahr, and C.D. Richards

Washington State University, US

Integrated High Frequency RF Inductors with Nano/micro Patterned Ferromagnetic Cores

Y. Zhuang, M. Vroubel, B. Rejaei and J.N. Burghartz

Delft University of Technology, NL

TwoRegime Hollow PDMS Abbe Prism for uTAS Applications

A. Llobera, R. Wilke and S. Büttgenbach

Institut für Mikrotechnik, DE

Device Characterization at the Wafer Level via Optical Actuation and Detection

J. Hedley, J.S. Burdess, A.J. Harris and B.J. Gallacher

Newcastle University, UK

A MOEMS Electrothermal Grating

E.P. Furlani

Eastman Kodak Research Labs, US

Practical Techniques for Measuring MEMS Properties

J.V. Clark, D. Garmire, M. Last, J. Demmel and S. Govindjee

Berkeley Sensor and Actuator Center, US

Pumping Capacity and Reliability Study on SiliconBased Cryogenic Micro Pump

Y. Zhao, B. Li, D. Ludlow and X. Zhang

Boston University, US

Chapter 9:

Smart MEMS and Sensor Systems

System Issues in Arrays of Autonomous Intelligent Sensors

R.M. Newman and E.I. Gaura

Conventry University, UK

Simulation of Micromachined Inertial Sensors with HigherOrder Single Loop SigmaDelta Modulators

Y. Dong and M. Kraft

University of Southampton, UK

Design and Development of an Integrated MEMS Sensor for Real Time Control of Plasma Etching

B.G. Morris and G.S May

Georgia Institute of Technology, US

GEMS: A Revolutionary System for Environmental Monitoring

J. Manobianco, R.J. Evans, K.S.J. Pister and D.M. Manobianco


Resonant Frequency Shift of Torsional Acutators due to Electrostatic Force

Z. Xiao, Y. Sun, B. Li, S. Lee, K.S. Sidhu, K.K. Chin and K.R. Farmer

New Jersey Institute of Technology, US

Electrostatic Tuning of a MicroRing Gyroscope

B.J. Gallacher, J. Hedley, J.S. Burdess, A.J. Harris, A. Rickard and D. King

Insat University of Newcastle, UK

Macromodel of Intelligent Sensor Structure with Accelometer

M. Husak, J. Jakovenko, P. Kulha, J. Novak and V. Janicek

Czech Technical University in Prague, CZ

Modeling and Practial Verification of the Ionophore Based Chemically Modified Field Effect Transistor

M. Daniel, M. Szermer, M. Janicki and A. Napieralski

DMCS, Technical University of Lodz, PL

Smart, Intelligent and Cogent Microsensors Intelligence for Sensors and Sensors for Intelligence

E. Gaura and R.M. Newman

Coventry University, UK

Chapter 10:

Micro and Nano Structuring and Assembly

Soft and Probe Lithography without Ink Transfer

J. Huskens, X. Li, M. Péter and D.N. Reinhoudt

University of Twente, MESA+ Research Institute, NL

Ferrofluid Masking for Lithographic Applications

B. Yellen and G. Friedman

Drexel University, US

Micro Actuator Array based on Ionic Polymer with Patterned SelfAssembled Au Electrode

M. Le Guilly, C. Xu, M. Taya and Y. Kuga

University of Washington, US

Batch Fabrication of Microsensor Arrays by TiO2 Nanoparticle Beam Deposition

P. Milani, E. Barborini, P. Piseri, S. Iannotta and P. Siciliano

Universita' di Milano, IT

Direct Scanning Laser Writing of 3D Multilayer Microstructures

H. Yu, B. Li and X. Zhang

Boston University, US

BottomUp meets TopDown A Novel Approach towards 3D Optical Devices

R. Houbertz, S. Cochet, G. Domann, M. Popall, J. Serbin, A. Ovsianikov and B.N. Chichkov

Fraunhofer ISC, DE

A Novel Method for Determining Optimum Etch Times for the One Step Dry Release Proces

P.T. Docker, P.K. Kinnell and M.C. Ward

The University of Birmingham, UK

Chapter 11:

Wafer and MEMS Processing

Planarize the Sidewall Ripples of Silicon Deep Reactive Ion Etching

KY Weng, MY Wang and PH Tsai

Industrial Technology Research Institute, TW

Process Factors in the Reduction of Output Conductance in Submicron CMOS

N.C. May, H.S. Tan and A.V. Kordesch


Inverse RIE Lag of Silicon Deep Etching

C.K. Chung and H.N. Chiang

National Cheng Kung University, TW

Microscope Slide Electrode Chamber for Nanosecond, MegavoltPerMeter Biological Investigations

Y. Sun, P.T. Vernier, M. Behrend, L. Marcu and M.A. Gundersen

University of Southern California, US

Numerical Analysis of Nanoimprinting Process Based on Continuum Hypothesis

H.C. Kim, Y.S. Woo, W.I. Lee, S.I. Oh and B.S. Kim

School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University., KR

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCIENCE / Physics