Terrorist Financing, Money Laundering, and Tax Evasion: Examining the Performance of Financial Intelligence Units, 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

Terrorist Financing, Money Laundering, and Tax Evasion

Examining the Performance of Financial Intelligence Units, 1st Edition

By Jayesh D'Souza

CRC Press

232 pages | 4 B/W Illus.

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Tracking funding is a critical part of the fight against terrorism and as the threat has escalated, so has the development of financial intelligence units (FIUs) designed to investigate suspicious transactions. Terrorist Financing, Money Laundering, and Tax Evasion: Examining the Performance of Financial Intelligence Units provides a thorough analysis of the financing phenomenon from the raising of funds to government agencies’ efforts to interdict them to measuring and monitoring the outcomes of these efforts.

This volume begins by presenting deep-rooted conflicts in the Middle East, the United States, the Indian subcontinent, Northern Ireland, and South America that have led to modern terrorism. It describes recent developments in counterterrorism and discusses the next steps in intelligence reform. Next, the author discusses how financial crime is committed, examining the source of funds from money laundering and tax evasion among others, and the transfer of these funds. He then covers performance and risk management, and the process of measuring performance using the balanced scorecard method. The book presents an overview of anti-money laundering and counterterrorist financing initiatives in several regions around the globe: the European Union, Asia Pacific, North America, Latin America and the Caribbean, the Middle East, and Africa. It concludes with a survey of experts’ opinions on the efficacy of current programs and recommendations for improving government performance in countering terrorist financing and related money laundering and tax evasion.

Knowing what to target and how to measure results are essential for performance enhancement in preventing and interdicting financial criminal activity. Establishing the need for accurate assessment of the success and failure of FIUs, the book demonstrates how monitoring and measuring progress is a crucial part of financial interdiction efforts in the fight against terrorism.


"The book is great and I have required it of my students this semester."

—Moyara Ruehsen, PhD, CAMS, Monterey Institute of International Studies Graduate School of International Policy & Management

" … the book’s objective is remarkably difficult, if not impossible, to achieve. Nonetheless, [it] elucidates a complex field with text that is easy to understand, and it is rich in examples, citations, and exhibits."

—Courtney Banks Spaeth, CEO of National Security Associates Worldwide, in Security Management

"As a guide to the problem, Terrorist Financing, Money Laundering, and Tax Evasion is a valuable source."

Intelligence Officer’s Bookshelf, CIA website

"Especially interesting are the author’s discussion of how financial crime is committed and the application of a "balanced scorecard" method in measuring programmatic effectiveness in countering terrorist funding."

—Joshua Sinai, Perspectives on Terrorism

" … a very useful, interesting, and stimulating project. For anyone wishing to know something about terrorist financing, developments in counter terrorism, and the work of all the organizations that operate in this area, I highly recommend this book. … contains a lot of interesting facts and figures and is really excellent in showing the relevant case studies.

—Friedrich Schneider, Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria, in International Criminal Justice Review

Table of Contents

The Organization of Terrorism and the Reorganization of Intelligence

The Roots of Religion-Based Terrorism

The Middle East

The United States of America

The Indian Subcontinent

Northern Ireland

South America

Recent Developments in Counterterrorism

Legislation and Surveillance

Law Enforcement

Intelligence Reform

The Next Steps in Intelligence Reform

Balancing Counterterrorism Action with Civil Liberties

Cross-Training Intelligence Personnel to Enhance Coordination

Providing Incentives for Cooperation and Disincentives for Failure

How Financial Crime Is Committed: The Source of Funds

Terrorist Financing

State Sponsors

Individual/Corporate Contributors

Nonprofit Organizations

Government Programs

Illegal Sources

Money Laundering

Tax Evasion/Fraud

Stopping Terrorist Funding: Laws, Directives, and Multilateral Agreements

How Financial Crime Is Committed: The Transfer of Funds

Financial Institutions

Wire Transfers

Financial Instruments—Securities


Informal Fund Transfer (IFT) System



International Trade

Offshore Tax Havens and Financial Centers

Alternative Remittance Systems (ARS)

Stored-Value Cards

The Internet and Digital Currency

Cash Couriers/Smugglers


Real Estate

Performance Measurement, Risk Management, and Managing Performance Using the Balanced Scorecard

A Primer on Performance Measurement

The Role of Performance Measurement in Countering Terrorism and Terrorist Financing

Risk Management

A Derivative of the Balanced Scorecard

Performance Management of Financial Intelligence Units

Introductory Questions

Questions Based on the Balanced Scorecard Approaches

General Questions

Comparative Question

Technical Question

An International Focus on the Fight against Financial Crime

The European Union


United Kingdom

The Netherlands

North America

The United States of America


Asia and the Pacific



Latin America and the Caribbean

Latin America

The Caribbean

The Middle East and Africa

The Middle East and North Africa (MENA)

The Rest of Africa

Financial Intelligence Units: Monitoring Resource and Process Outcomes




Financial Resources and the Return on Investment

Work Processes

Strengthening Stakeholder Relations

Tightening Work Protocols

How to Better the End Outcome of the Fight against Financial Crime

Survey Results

The United States as a Terrorist Target

Process and Resource Outcomes Are Vital to Financial Intelligence Agency Performance

Metrics Used to Track Performance Must Be Definitive

Current Challenges Facing FIUs

Overcoming Administrative Impediments

Increasing Communication

Determining Direction for the Future

A Final Word


About the Author

Jayesh D’Souza is a doctoral graduate from Florida International University’s Public Administration Program. Mr. D’Souza is a specialist in public policy, finance, and economics and has a number of publications and presentations in governmental financial performance, counterterrorism, economic development, energy and the environment, education, and health care. His past employers include the Government of Ontario and T. D. Waterhouse.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
LAW / Criminal Law / General
LAW / Forensic Science
POLITICAL SCIENCE / Political Freedom & Security / Terrorism