Featuring contributions by an international team of the world’s experts in urology and gynecology, this fourth edition reinforces its status as the classic comprehensive resource on female urology and urogynecology and an essential clinical reference in the field.
Table of Contents
BACKGROUND ISSUES: History of Urogynecology and Female Urology. Epidemiology: U.S.A. Epidemiology: South America. Epidemiology: Europe. Epidemiology: Australia. Epidemiology: Asia. Epidemiology of female pelvic dysfunction in Africa. Tackling the stigma of incontinence. Natural history and prevention of urinary incontinence and urogenital prolapse. Medical error and patient safety in surgery.
THE ROLE OF PATIENT REPORTED OUTCOME MEASURES AND HEALTH ECONOMICS: Section introduction: The role of Patient Reported Outcome measures and health Economics. Patient Reported Outcomes: From development to utilization. Patient Reported Outcome questionnaires to assess health related Quality of Life and symptom impact. Patient Reported Outcome questionnaires to screen and measure satisfaction, expectations, and goal achievement. Questionnaires to assess sexual function. Questionnaires to assess bowel function. International Consultation on Incontinence Modular Questionnaire (ICIQ). Electronic Personal Assessment Questionnaire – Pelvic Floor (ePAQ-PF). Questionnaires to assess pelvic organ prolapse. Economic aspects of urinary incontinence.
THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THE LOWER URINARY AND ANORECTAL TRACTS IN WOMEN: Anatomy. Embryology of the female urogenital system and clinical applications. Physiology of micturition. Pharmacology of the bladder. Uropathogens and the lower urinary tract. Classification of Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction in the Female Patient. Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine for the Female Genitourinary System.
THE DIAGNOSTIC EVALUATION OF INCONTINENCE AND UROGENITAL PROLAPSE: History and examination. Bladder diary and symptom scores. Pad tests. Basic urodynamic tests: Uroflowmetry. Basic urodynamic tests: Filling and voiding cystometry. Special urodynamic tests: Urethral function. Special urodynamic tests: Videourodynamics. Special urodynamic test: Ambulatory urodynamics. Basic neurological evaluation and referral. Imaging of the Upper and Lower Urinary Tract: Radiology and ultrasound. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Urogynaecology. Endoscopy. Urinanalysis and urine culture.
CONSERVATIVE AND MINIMALLY INVASIVE THERAPIES: The role of the Continence Nurse. Behavioral therapies and management of urinary incontinence in women. Physiotherapy for urinary incontinence. Pessaries and devices: Nonsurgical treatment of pelvic organ prolapse and stress urinary incontinence. Catheters, pads and pants, and appliances. Drug treatment of voiding dysfunction in women. Peripheral neuromodulation. Sacral neuromodulation in the treatment of female overactive bladder syndrome and non-obstructive urinary retention. Injectable bulking agents in the treatment of female Stress Urinary Incontinence. The use of botulinum toxins in management of female Voiding Dysfunction.
ASSOCIATED DISORDERS: The overactive bladder. Neurologic disorders. Non-neurogenic voiding dysfunction and urinary retention. Pathophysiological mechanisms of chronic pelvic pain. Bladder Pain Syndrome/Interstitial cystitis. Bacterial cystitis in Urogynaecology: An update. Vaginitis. Pregnancy and childbirth and the effect on the pelvic floor. Problems associated with sexual activity. The menopause. Sports and fitness activities. Anal incontinence. Constipation. Female sexual dysfunction. Multidisciplinary clinics: Colorectal. Multidisciplinary clinics: Urology and Urogynaecology. Multidisciplinary clinics: Specific considerations for elderly care.
SURGERY FOR URINARY INCONTINENCE: How and why incontinence surgery works. Peri- and postoperative care. Traditional surgery and other historical procedures for stress incontinence. Retropubic urethropexy. Fascial slings. Tension-free vaginal tape procedure for treatment of female urinary stress incontinence. Transobturator tape for surgical treatment of stress urinary incontinence (Outside-In Technique). Single incision mini-slings. Readjustable slings: Safyre and Remeex. Nonsurgical transurethral radiofrequency collagen denaturation of the bladder neck and proximal urethra for the treatment of Stress Urinary Incontinence. The artificial urinary sphincter for treatment of Stress Urinary Incontinence in women. Diagnosis and treatment of obstruction following incontinence surgery: Urethrolysis and other techniques. Complications of stress urinary incontinence surgery.
SURGERY FOR UROGENITAL PROLAPSE: Classification and epidemiology of pelvic organ prolapse. Anterior vaginal wall prolapse. Enterocele. Rectocele: Anatomic and functional repair. Vaginal approach to fixation of vaginal apex. Open abdominal approach to supporting the vaginal apex. Laparoscopic and robotic approaches to apical and vaginal vault suspension. Uterine prolapse. Biological grafts in pelvic surgery. Complications of synthetic mesh used to repair pelvic organ prolapse. Episiotomy and perineal repair. Primary repair of obstetric anal sphincter injuries. Surgery for fecal incontinence. Rectal prolapse and other causes of fecal obstruction. Synthetic grafts in pelvic surgery.
LAPAROSCOPY AND ROBOTICS: Section introduction: The role of laparoscopic surgery in Urogynaecology. Pelvic anatomy through the laparoscope. Training and accreditation in laparoscopic surgery in Urogynecology. Laparoscopic colposuspension and paravaginal repair. Laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy. Laparoscopic sacrohysteropexy. Prevention, recognition, and treatment of complications in laparoscopic pelvic floor surgery. The role of robotic surgery. Vesicoscopy. Cost effectiveness in laparoscopic and robotic surgery in Urogynecology.
COMPLEX PROBLEMS: The diagnosis of urogenital fistula.Transvaginal repair of urogenital fistula.Transabdominal vesicovaginal and vesicouterine fistula repair. Management of obstetric urogenital fistula. Diagnosis and management of urethral diverticulum and fistula. Diagnosis and management of female urethral stricture disease. Ureteral and bladder reconstruction. Gynaecological developmental abnormalities. Pediatric Urogynecology. Female genital cosmetic surgery: from female genital cutting to vaginal rejuvenation. Cosmetic vaginal surgery. Urologic complications of gynecologic surgery.
APPENDICES: Standardization of terminology. The standardization of terminology of lower urinary tract function: Report from the Standardization Sub-Committee of International Continence Society. An International Urogynaecological Association (IUGA)/International Continence Society (ICS) joint report on the terminology for Female Pelvic Floor Dysfunction. Commentary on the 2009 IUGA/ICS Joint Report on the terminology for Female Pelvic Floor Dysfunction. The standardization of terminology of Female Pelvic Organ Prolapse and Pelvic Floor Dysfunction. Good urodynamic pactices: Uroflowmetry, filling cystometry, and pressure-flow studies. Developing evidence-based standards for diagnosis and management of Lower Urinary Tract or Pelvic Floor Dysfunction. Standardization of dynamic magnetic resonance imaging measurements of pelvic organ proalpse: can the PICS line help?
Linda Cardozo, M.D., is Professor of Urogynecology and Consultant Gynecologist at King’s College Hospital, London, UK. David R. Staskin, M.D., is Director, Female Urology and Male Voiding Dysfunction, St. Elizabeth’s Medical Center and Associate Professor of Urology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.