1st Edition

The Ancient Romans History and Society from the Early Republic to the Death of Augustus

By Matthew Dillon, Lynda Garland Copyright 2021
    818 Pages
    by Routledge

    818 Pages
    by Routledge

    This textbook provides comprehensive coverage of the political, military, and social history of ancient Rome from the earliest days of the Republic to its collapse and the subsequent foundations of the empire established by Augustus prior to his death in AD 14.

    Interspersed through the discussion of the political history of the period are crucial chapters on all aspects of Roman culture, including women, religion, slavery and manumission, overseas conquests and their impact, and life in the city of Rome, giving students a full understanding of republican society, culture, and politics. With over 130 maps, illustrations, and photographs, The Ancient Romans is lavishly illustrated, with a particular emphasis on coins as a valuable historical resource. It also closely references the authors’ sourcebook, Ancient Rome: Social and Historical Documents from the Early Republic to the Death of Augustus, second edition, allowing students to engage with the documentary evidence and written sources in a deep and meaningful way.

    The Ancient Romans: History and Society from the Early Republic to the Death of Augustus is an indispensable resource for undergraduate students of the Roman Republic and its society and culture, as well as offering a comprehensive and compelling introduction for the interested reader.

    List of figures
    List of maps
    List of genealogical trees
    Some useful definitions
    List of Roman consuls 88 BC – AD 14
    List of abbreviations
    Genealogical (family) trees

    1 Early Republican Rome: 507–264 BC 
    Geography and location
    The forum Romanum
    Senate and magistracies
    The assemblies and tribunate
    The beginnings of the ‘Conflict of the Orders’
    Rome and its Italian neighbours
    The origins of the Twelve Tables
    The XII Tables
    The Supplementary Tables
    The Conflict of the Orders continues
    Polybius on the Roman constitution
    Rome’s struggle for Italy
    Rome and the Latins
    The Samnite wars and Pyrrhus

    2 The Public Face of Rome 
    The infrastructure of the city
    Communications and public works
    The ideology of the Roman senatorial class
    Conspicuous consumption in Rome
    The Roman triumph
    Candidature for office: ambitio
    The ‘novus homo’
    Clientela and patrocinium
    Litigation as a way of life
    Oratory as part of a public career
    ‘Bread and circuses’

    3 Religion in the Roman Republic 
    Early deities and cults
    Early hymns and rituals
    Roman purificatory rituals
    Ritual formulae and prayers
    Religious calendars
    The sacred chickens
    Dedications and vows
    The introduction of new gods
    The Bacchanalia, 186 BC
    Curse tables and sympathetic magic
    Religion and politics
    Funerary practices

    4 The Punic Wars
    The city of Carthage
    Rome’s treaties with Carthage: 508, 348, 279 BC
    The constitution of Carthage
    The First Punic War
    Roman victory and peace terms
    The Second Punic War
    The causes of the Second Punic War
    The first stages of the war in Italy
    The impact on the allies
    The tide turns
    P. Cornelius Scipio (Africanus)
    Scipio in Africa
    Peace terms
    The Third Punic War, 151–146 BC

    5 Rome’s Mediterranean Empire 
    The ideology of Roman military supremacy
    The military hero
    The Roman army
    Polybius on Rome’s military system
    Military technology
    Military discipline
    Rome’s conquest of the Mediterranean
    Antiochus III ‘the Great’
    Rome as master of the Mediterranean
    Rome’s imperialist stance
    Rome’s conquest of Greece
    The Western Mediterranean
    The impact of conquest on Rome
    Hellenic culture and Rome
    Extravagance and luxury
    Rome and the provinces

    6 Slaves and Freedmen 
    Slave numbers and prices
    Sources of slaves
    Domestic slaves
    The treatment of slaves
    Slaves in industry and manufacture
    Slaves and the entertainment industry
    Farm slaves: their occupations and training
    Slaves and the law
    Runaways and fugitives
    Slave revolts
    The manumission of slaves
    The occupations of freedmen
    Funerary inscriptions
    Slaves and freedmen of the imperial household

    7 Women, Sexuality and the Family 
    Roman family names
    Family law
    The formalities of marriage
    Old-fashioned families
    Family relationships
    Wives and their role
    Marital discord
    Adultery, conspiracy and sorcery
    Heterosexual love: Catullus and Lesbia
    Homosexuality and pederasty
    Women as owners and consumers
    Women and the gods
    Women’s festivals
    The Bona Dea
    The Vestal virgins

    8 Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus 
    Family background
    The tribunate of Tiberius, 133 BC
    Tiberius and the senate
    Boundary stones of the Gracchan period
    The aftermath of Tiberius’ legislation
    Rome and the allies
    The career of Gaius Gracchus
    The legislation of C. Gracchus
    Gaius loses popular support
    Assassination and reprisals
    Failure of the Gracchan reforms
    Later views of the Gracchi

    9 Gaius Marius 
    Marius’s early career
    Marius in Africa
    Marius and Sulla
    Marius and the Germans
    Army reforms
    Marius, Saturninus and Glaucia
    Saturninus and the land law
    Marius’s later career
    The command against Mithridates
    Marius’ return to Rome

    10 The ‘Social’ War 
    The restriction of Roman citizenship
    The citizenship proposals of Fulvius Flaccus and Gaius Gracchus
    Marcus Livius Drusus
    The grievances of the allies
    The Social War
    ‘Brothers-in-arms’: Romans and Italians
    The emergence of L. Cornelius Sulla
    Citizenship for the Italians
    Pro-Italian legislation and the Mithridatic command, 88 BC
    The battle of the Colline Gate, 82 BC

    11 Lucius Cornelius Sulla ‘Felix’ 
    Sulla’s early career
    Mithridates VI of Pontus
    The background to the civil war
    Sulla’s march on Rome, 88 BC
    Sulla and Mithridates
    Events in Rome: Waiting for Sulla 85–84 BC
    Sulla’s return
    Pompey’s triumph
    Sulla’s proscriptions
    Dictatorship and constitutional reforms
    Sulla’s legislation
    Sulla in retirement
    Sulla’s abdication, 79 BC
    Later views of Sulla
    Sulla’s epitaph

    12 The Collapse of the Republic 
    The aftermath of Sulla’s dictatorship
    The consulship of Crassus and Pompey, 70 BC
    Pompey’s extraordinary commands
    The Catilinarian conspiracy, 63 BC
    Cicero and his times
    Pompey’s return from the East
    Cicero and Pompey
    The events of 60 BC
    The first triumvirate
    Caesar’s consulship
    Clodius and Cicero
    Cato the Younger
    Cicero’s return from exile
    Pompey’s grain command, 57 BC
    Caesar in Gaul
    The conference at Luca, 56 BC
    The second consulship of Crassus and Pompey
    The events of 54 BC
    Crassus in Parthia
    Caesar’s invasions of Britain

    13 Civil War and Dictatorship 
    Anarchy in Rome 53–52 BC
    Pompey as sole consul, 52 BC
    The lead-up to civil war
    The events of 50 BC
    The flight of the tribunes
    Crossing the Rubicon
    Preparations for war
    Civil war
    Pompey and his supporters
    Caesar in the East
    Caesar’s dictatorships
    Exceptional honours for Caesar
    Caesar’s legislation
    Caesar’s administrative measures
    Caesar and his image
    The Ides of March

     14 Octavian’s Rise to Power
    Mark Antony (M. Antonius)
    C. Octavius (C. Julius Caesar ‘Octavianus’)
    The aftermath of Caesar’s assassination
    Octavian arrives in Italy
    Octavian and the populace
    Cicero and Anthony
    Events at Mutina
    Cicero, Octavian and the senate
    Octavian’s first consulship, 43 BC
    Triumvirate and proscriptions
    The ‘liberators’ and civil war
    The battle of Philippi, October 42 BC
    Fulvia, Lucius Antonius and the dispossessed
    Anthony’s reorganisation of the East
    Events in Italy
    Livia Drusilla
    The downfall of Sex. Pompeius and Lepidus, 36 BC
    Anthony, Cleopatra and Parthia
    Propaganda and invective
    Civil war
    The battle of Actium, September 31 BC
    ‘Aegypto Capta’: the defeat of Antony, Cleopatra and Egypt
    C. Cornelius Gallus
    Octavian’s return to Italy
    Princeps and Augustus


    15 The Age of Augustus
    Augustus and the Res Gestae divi Augusti
    Augustus takes control of government, 27 BC
    Augustus as author
    Principal events of Augustus’ principate: the Fasti
    Augustus’s constitutional position: the ‘Second Settlement’
    Augustus ‘Imperator’
    Augustus and traditional religion
    Marriage, divorce and adultery
    The lex Papia Poppaea, AD 9
    The ludi saeculares
    Marcellus and Agrippa
    Augustus and imperial cult
    Legislation on slaves and freedmen
    The family of Augustus
    Augustus as administrator
    Senators and new men
    Maecenas and Augustan literature
    The golden years
    Disappointment and disaster
    The end of an age
    Views of Augustus and his regime



    Matthew Dillon is Professor of Classics and Ancient History in the School of Humanities at the University of New England, Australia. His main research interests are in ancient Greek history and religion. He is the author of Omens and Oracles: Divination in Ancient Greece and Asklepios and His Healing Hands.

    Lynda Garland is Honorary Research Professor in the School of Historical and Philosophical Inquiry at the University of Queensland, Australia. With Matthew Dillon, she is the author of Ancient Greece: Social and Historical Documents from Archaic Times to the Death of Alexander, third edition; The Ancient Greeks: History and Culture from Archaic Times to the Death of Alexander the Great; and Ancient Rome: Social and Historical Documents from the Early Republic to the Death of Augustus, second edition. Apart from ancient history, her main research interest is in the area of Byzantine studies.

    "The current text is a valuable contribution to the field as it covers the Roman Republic, the dynastic period and the rise of Augustus in just over 750 pages...this is an expertly written and highly recommended text." - The Classical Review