This bookexamines the sustained interest in legends of the pagan and peripheral North, tracing and analyzing the use of an ‘out-of-Scandinavia’ legend (Scandinavia as an ancestral homeland) in a wide range of medieval texts from all over Europe, with a focus on the Anglo-Saxon tradition. The pagan North was an imaginative region, which attracted a number of conflicting interpretations. To Christian Europe, the pagan North was an abject Other, but it also symbolized a place from which ancestral strength and energy derived. Rix maps how these discourses informed ‘national’ legends of ancestral origins, showing how an ‘out-of-Scandinavia’ legend can be found in works by several familiar writers including Jordanes, Bede, ‘Fredegar’, Paul the Deacon, Freculph, and Æthelweard. The book investigates how legends of northern warriors were first created in classical texts and since re-calibrated to fit different medieval understandings of identity and ethnicity. Among other things, the ‘out-of-Scandinavia’ tale was exploited to promote a legacy of ‘barbarian’ vigor that could withstand the negative cultural effects of Roman civilization. This volume employs a variety of perspectives cutting across the disciplines of poetry, history, rhetoric, linguistics, and archaeology. After years of intense critical interest in medieval attitudes towards the classical world, Africa, and the East, this first book-length study of ‘the North’ will inspire new debates and repositionings in medieval studies.
"Through sound, comprehensive research and analysis, Rix successfully unfolds plausible geographical, cultural, and political aspects of a topos that originates as an expression of alterity as much as a historical reality. Summing Up: Recommended." - A. P. Church, CHOICE
Introduction 1. Categorizing the North and Its People 2. The Goths and the ‘Out-of-Scandinavia’ Legend 3. Ethnic History and European Peoples 4. Ancestral Rhetoric in Bede’s Historia ecclesiastic agentis Anglorum 5. Scandinavian Ancestors in Anglo-Saxon Texts 6. Danes and Geatas: Heroes of the Legendary North