The Cell Surface in Embryogenesis and Carcinogenesis
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This book covers recent trends in the study of cell surfaces, cell interactions, and cell behavior during selected events in development and cancer. It relates current thrusts in molecular biology to more cellular aspects of these fields and draws parallels between advances in developmental biology, malignant invasiveness, wound healing, and regeneration. The book opens with a discussion of a number of developmental events, stressing the importance of the cell surface and extracellular matrix to morphogenesis, cell locomotion, and invasiveness. Basement membranes are discussed in terms of their activity as substrata for cell movement, barriers to invasion, and their role in epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. These aspects of cell-cell and cell-matrix interaction are directly compared with developmental and neoplastic events, emphasizing the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transformations that are common to both of these situations. Other topics discussed include cell surface considerations, cell-cell adhesion, cell-substratum adhesion, as well as a discussion regarding how these topics are relevant to the cell biology of wound healing and regeneration. This book is ideal for researchers and students in biology, cell biology, biochemistry, molecular biology, anatomy, zoology, and medicine.
Table of Contents
PREFACE. MAKING CONNECTIONS. THE CONTROL OF CELL MOVEMENT IN EARLY EMBYRONIC DEVELOPMENT. GASTRULATION IN AVIAN EMBRYOS. Contact Inhibition of Locomotion. Extracellular Matrix. Contact Guidance. Chemotaxis and Haptotaxis. Gastrulation as an Example of Embryonic Cell Invasion. MESODERM MORPHOGENESIS. Sclerotome Cell Migration. Expansion of the Area Vasculosa Mesoderm. MAMMALIAN GASTRULATION. TERATOCARCINOMAS. AMPHIBIAN GASTRULATION. PRIMORDIAL GERM CELL MIGRATION. Amphibian PGCs. Avian PGCs. Mammalian PGCs. NEURAL CREST CELL MIGRATION. Pathways of Migration. Factors Affecting the Behavior of the Migrating Cells. Extracellular Matrix. THREE DIMENSIONAL COLLAGEN MATRICES. Mesoderm and Neural Crest Cells. Cardiac Cushion Cells. OBSERVATIONS ON CELLS IN LIVING EMBRYOS. Sea Urchin Primary Mesenchyme Cells. Teleost Deep Blastomeres. PASSIVE CELL MOVEMENTS. BASEMENT MEMBRANES IN EMBRYOGENESIS. GENERAL ULTRASTRUCTURE. MOLECULAR CONSTITUENTS. Proteoglycans. Type IV Collagen. Other Collagens. Laminin. Fibronectin. Other Glycoproteins. COMPONENT ORGANIZATION. SYNTHESIS AND TURNOVER. SOME GENERAL ROLES FOR BASEMENT MEMBRANES IN DEVELOPMENT. A Substratum for Morphogenetic Migration. Maintenance of Epithelial Polarity and Stability. Regulation of Epithelial Folding Morphogenesis. Mediation of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Inductive Interactions. BASEMENT MEMBRANES IN EARLY DEVELOPMENT. Avian Gastrulation. Neural Crest Cells. Primordial Germ Cells. Early Mammalian (Rodent) Development. Implantation. Teratocarcinoma Basement Membranes. DEGRADATIVE ENZYMES IN DEVELOPMENT. Hyaluronidase. Collagenase. Plasminogen Activators. EPITHELIAL-MESENCHYMAL INDUCTIVE INTERACTIONS. Kidney Development. Limb Bud Development. Chondrogenesis and Osetogenesis. Tooth Development. Morphogenesis of Skin. CELL INVASIVENESS IN CANCER. NORMAL CELLS vs. TUMOR CELLS. Cell Proliferation. Cell Movement. MALIGNANT TUMORIGENICITY. Breakout and Primary Invasion. Intravasation and Dissemination. Arrest and Extravasation. Secondary Invasion and Proliferation. INVASIVENESS. In Situ Studies of Invasiveness. Model Systems for Invasion Studies. Malignant Cells Transplanted into Embryos. Directionality of Invasiveness. TUMOR CELL INTERACTIONS IN VITRO. Contact Inhibition of Locomotion. ROLE OF THE EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. Glycosaminoglycans and Proteoglycans. Glycoproteins. MATRIX AND BASEMENT MEMBRANE DEGRADATION IN INVASION. Proteoglycans and Fibronectin. Collagen. Basement Membranes. MATTERS OF THE CELL SURFACE. GLYCOPROTEINS AND GLYCOLIPIDS. Glycoproteins. Glycolipids. Cell Surface Charge. MEMBRANE RECEPTORS FOR THE EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. CELL SURFACES IN DEVELOPMENT. The Early Avian Embryo-Gastrulation and Somitogenesis. The Early Mammalian Embryo. The Early Amphibian Embryo. Primordial Germ Cells. Sea Urchin Development. SURFACES OF CANCER CELLS. Cell Surface Glycoconjugates. Functional Surface Adhesion Molecules. CELL-TO-CELL AND CELL-TO-SUBSTRATUM CONTACT. INTERCELLULAR CONTACTS. Desmosomes. Adhaerens Junctions. Tight Junctions. Gap Junctions. CELL-SUBSTRATUM CONTACT. Focal Contacts. Substratum Contact of Moving Cells. Transmembrane Molecular Interaction. TRANSFORMED CELLS. WOUND HEALING AND REGENERATION. IN VITRO STUDIES OF WOUND HEALING. Wounding Cultured Epithelial Cell Sheets. AMPHIBIAN SKIN WOUNDS. WOUND HEALING IN EMBRYOS. CORNEAL EPITHELIUM WOUNDS. MAMMALIAN SKIN WOUNDS. CELL SURFACE CHANGES DURING WOUND HEALING. ROLE OF EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX IN WOUND HEALING. The Role of Fibronectin. Basement Membrane Repair. REGENERATION. Amphibian Limb Regeneration. Amphibian Lens Regeneration. Extracellular Factors in Nerve Regeneration. REFERENCES. INDEX. c. 450 pp., 1989, ISBN 0-936923-27-X.