This book is the first to bring together researchers in individual differences in personality and temperament to explore whether there is any unity possible between the temperament researchers of infancy and childhood and the major researchers in adult personality. Prior to the workshop which resulted in this volume, the existing literature seemed to document a growing consensus on the part of the adult personality researchers that five major personality dimensions -- the "Big Five" -- might be sufficient to account for most of the important variances in adult individual differences in personality. In contrast to this accord, the literature on child and infant individual differences seemed to offer a wide variety of opinions regarding the basic dimensions of difference in personality or temperament. The editors believed that they could encourage researchers from both the adult and child areas to consider the importance of a lifespan conceptualization of individual differences by discussing their research in terms of a continuity approach.
Written by some of the most distinguished scholars from Great Britain, continental Western Europe, and Eastern Europe as well as the United States and Canada, the chapters present a cross-cultural view of both adult personality and temperament in infancy and childhood. By sharing their recent data, techniques, and theoretical speculations, the chapter authors communicate the research enthusiasm engendered by the growing consensus of the adult "Big Five" as well as the exciting prospects of an integrative program of research from infancy to adulthood that will clarify and consolidate what is now a disparate set of methods, theory, and findings across the lifespan. The editors suggest that this volume will have considerable heuristic value in stimulating researchers to conceptualize their work in developmental, lifespan approaches that will lead to a consolidation of individual differences research at every age.
Table of Contents
Contents: Preface. Part I: Current Conceptions of the Structure of Adult Personality. L.R. Goldberg, T.K. Rosolak, The Big Five Factor Structure as an Integrative Framework: An Empirical Comparison with Eysenck's P-E-N Model. H.J. Eysenck, The Big Five or Giant Three: Criteria for a Paradigm. M. Zuckerman, An Alternate Five-Factor Model for Personality. A. Angleitner, F. Ostendorf, Temperament and the Big Five Factors of Personality. B. De Raad, A.A.J. Hendriks, W.K.B. Hofstee, The Big Five: A Tip of the Iceberg of Individual Differences. A.T. Panter, J.S. Tanaka, R.H. Hoyle, Structual Models for Multimode Designs in Personality and Temperament Research. P.T. Costa, Jr., R.R. McCrae, Stability and Change in Personality From Adolescence Through Adulthood. Part II: Emerging Conceptions of the Childhood Precursors of Personality Structure. R.P. Martin, J. Wisenbaker, M. Huttunen, Review of Factor Analytic Studies of Temperament Measures Based on the Thomas-Chess Structural Model: Implications for the Big Five. W.O. Eaton, Temperament, Development and the Five-Factor Model: Lessons From Activity Level. S.A. Ahadi, M.K. Rothbart, Temperament, Development and the Big Five. T.D. Wachs, Fit, Context, and the Transition Between Temperament and Personality. Part III: Deriving the Five-Factor Model From Parental Ratings of Children and Adolescents. B. Hagekull, Infant Temperament and Early Childhood Functioning: Possible Relations to the Five-Factor Model. H.H. Goldsmith, S.H. Losoya, D.L. Bradshaw, J.J. Campos, Genetics of Personality: A Twin Study of the Five-Factor Model and Parent-Offspring Analyses. R.W. Robins, O.P. John, A. Caspi, Major Dimensions of Personality in Early Adolescence: The Big Five and Beyond. C.F.M. van Lieshout, G.J.T. Haselager, The Big Five Personality Factors in Q-Sort Descriptions of Children and Adolescents. Part IV: Deriving the Five-Factor Model From Teacher Ratings of Children and Adolescents. J.M. Digman, Child Personality and Temperament: Does the Five-Factor Model Embrace Both Domains? W.G. Graziano, The Development of Agreeableness as a Dimension of Personality. J.B. Victor, The Five-Factor Model Applied to Individual Differences in School Behavior. Part V: A Research Agenda for the Study of Personality and Temperament in Childhood Based on Free Description. V.L. Havill, K. Allen, C.F. Halverson, G.A. Kohnstamm, Parents' Use of Big Five Categories in Their Natural Language Descriptions of Children. I. Mervielde, A Five-Factor Model Classification of Teachers' Constructs on Individual Differences Among Children Ages 4 to 12. A.W. Goedhart, A. Treffers, G.A. Kohnstamm, The Five-Factor Model in Child Psychiatry: Parents' Free Personality Descriptions of Their Children.