As mankind searches for energy alternatives with minimal environmental consequences and acceptable cost, it is necessary to identify valid areas of endeavor that can activate favorable energy sources and technological developments. Toward that end, The Dynamics of Energy: Supply, Conversion, and Utilization develops competence in energy matters on three levels: basic concepts, essential computations, and dynamic modeling.
The book reviews the laws of thermodynamics and rate relationships between flows and gradients as a foundation for subsequent topics. Using dynamic analysis, it examines the potential of current energy sources to serve the needs of a growing world economy. The text also describes key fossil conversion, renewable conversion, and utilization technologies. It presents a technique to assess efficiencies from ground (or harvest) to end use, explores the effects of energy use on the environment, and offers an introduction to dynamic modeling. The book concludes with a description of energy technologies that, if suitably employed, could configure a sustainable energy future.
Studying the dynamics of thermal systems is conducive to ascertaining what technologies could indeed make a difference for a desirable energy future. Suitable response time to demand and acceptable fuel lifetimes are necessary conditions for energy systems to compete in the marketplace. The planning effort that should lead the energy endeavor requires projection of the time span of pollution effects. Harnessing the flexibility and speed of VisSim™ for dynamic modeling, this book provides the tools to model most thermal systems with moderate complexity. It also evaluates energy supplies, conversion, and end use.
Table of Contents
Energy in Motion
The Second Law
The First Law
If Energy Is Conserved, Why Worry about Energy Supplies?
Temperature: Can It Get Any Colder?
Entropy: Does It Really Exist?
Entropy Grows Like Weeds
Irreversibility and Entropy
Conversions—Cyclical and Direct
The Equations for Transient Phenomena
State, Properties, and Process
Reynold’s Transport Theorem
Conservation of Mass
Conservation of Momentum
Conservation of Energy
No "Lost and Found" for Lost Work
Exergy, or Work Not Yet Lost
Reversible Work and Real Work
Direct Conversion Processes: Is an Efficiency Close to One Possible?
Other Useful Empirical Dissipation Laws
Predicting Peaks: A Difficult Art
Disclaimer and Method
Resource Lifetime and the Laws of Thermodynamics
Example of Resource Lifetime Estimation
Projecting into the Past
Units: A Practical Choice
The Center of It All
An Overview: All Together Now
Fossil Fuels and Their Technology
Area: Not a Superficial Topic
Après Conversion: Utilization Technology
Chain Efficiencies: From Capture to Utilization
On This Chapter
Extraction Energy Costs
Energy Conversion/Distribution Efficiencies
Energy and Its Sequels
Constant Travel with a Brief Stop on Earth
All Together Now
Variables and Elements
General Forms of Commonly Used Laws
Programming in VisSim
The Future: A Moving Green Target
The Future and Criteria
Coal: Many Possible Futures
CO2 Capture and Its Possibilities
Oil and Gas
Moving Fuels around
Energy Savings through Enhanced Efficiency
A Convergence to Renewables?
References appear at the end of each chapter.
Horacio Perez-Blanco is Professor of Mechanical Engineering at Pennsylvania State University. A fellow of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Dr. Perez-Blanco teaches short courses on gas turbines for the International Gas Turbines Institute and has developed an energy systems laboratory for his department. His research interests include thermal systems, simultaneous heat and mass transfer, and gas turbine inlet cooling.