1st Edition

The Future of Entrepreneurship in Africa Cross-Sectoral Perspectives Post COVID-19

    178 Pages 5 B/W Illustrations
    by Productivity Press

    178 Pages 5 B/W Illustrations
    by Productivity Press

    178 Pages 5 B/W Illustrations
    by Productivity Press

    Thsi book focuses on entrepreneurial development and the development of small businesses in Africa. The central idea of this book is that entrepreneurial development and small business development are connected. Entrepreneurship is lauded as an engine of growth (economic development and job creation), with small businesses often contributing to new job creation. Also, entrepreneurship and small business development are the heart of many countries’ economies. The decision to focus on entrepreneurial development and small business development is that first, there is a consensus that most entrepreneurial activities are aimed at creating small new ventures. Second, countries that give special attention to entrepreneurship stand a chance of industrialization. Third, Africa has been reported as having a rich entrepreneurial landscape as the continent’s wealthiest individuals generated their wealth as trailblazing entrepreneurs. Fourth, small-scale entrepreneurs and businesses form the backbone of economic activities across the continent. A motivation to focus on entrepreneurial and small business development is the generally accepted view that start-ups in Africa are growing calling for understanding into how to enhance productivity, efficiencies, and application of new technologies.

    The book aims to enhance the understanding of stakeholders (business owners, governments, practitioners) to overturn challenges such as inadequate start-up capital, competition, lack of employees with the right skills, and low use of technology. The ability to develop entrepreneurship in Africa, and the role of small-medium enterprises cannot be underestimated. The promotion of entrepreneurship in Africa is crucial as it creates jobs, provides decent livelihoods, and contributes to GDP. Most entrepreneurial initiatives in developing economies entail identifying opportunities and new venture creation. It is worth recognizing that most new ventures created take the form of small businesses and the entrepreneurial processes involve entrepreneurs’ knowledge and skills, identifying opportunities, involvement in setting up a business and managing the business.

    The various aspects of this book focus on many entrepreneurial activities that are undertaken on the African continent. This book is focused on African countries since there is a reason to be optimistic about the prospects for growth and entrepreneurship. To achieve entrepreneurial success in African countries, the African Development Bank (2021) proposes that there must be a link between macro and firm-level characteristics that will serve as the mix of entrepreneurship in societies.

    This book, therefore, considers some macro-level factors such as education, training, and skills development, technological developments, government programs, and entrepreneurial challenges and opportunities. At the firm-level, this book focuses on entrepreneurial initiatives such as branding and marketing.

    Chapter ONE


    Africa’s Entrepreneurship Policy and Development Climate

    Entrepreneurial Development in Africa; Enhancement of marketing capabilities and international entrepreneurship

    Strategising for international entrepreneurship

    Strategising gender dynamics for entrepreneurial growth of Africa

    Structure of the book





    What is Entrepreneurship?

    The COVID- 19 Scourge and Entrepreneurship in Ghana

    Nature of Entrepreneurship in Ghana

    Sports Entrepreneurship and Covid-19

    Micro-Entrepreneurship and COVID-19

    Digital Entrepreneurship and COVID-19 in Ghana

    Entrepreneurial Orientation and COVID-19 in Ghana

    Social Entrepreneurs and COVID-19 in Ghana

    Mitigation Efforts on COVID-19



    Challenges and prospects of informal entrepreneurs in Accra: lessons from Agbogbloshie market



    Literature Review

    Institutional Theory and the Informal economy

    Motivation factor for informal sector participation

    Challenges within the Informal Sector

    Prospects of Informal Entrepreneurship

    Research Methodology

    Results and Discussions


    Reasons for Informal Participation

    Menial nature of the job

    Temporary Nature of the Business

    Low self-esteem

    Challenges faced by informal entrepreneurs in Accra

    Constant Harassment from City Authorities

    Invasion of Counterfeit Goods

    Informal Institutions- A Challenge?

    Curbing the Challenges



    Harassment by City Authorities as a Challenge to Informal Entrepreneurs

    Invasion of Counterfeit Goods as a Limitation to Informal business growth

    Activities of Queens/Kings as a Constraint to Informal Entrepreneurs’ Business Expansion

    Low Self-Esteem as a Constraint for Curbing Informal Entrepreneurship Challenge

    Informal Entrepreneurship Serves as Employment Opportunities/Product Innovation



    Future Directions for Research



    Internationalisation of Rural Business Marketing



    Review of Literature on Internationalisation of Rural Business Marketing

    Governance and Political Barriers

    Legal and Regulatory Barriers

    Economic and Financial Barriers

    Social and Cultural Barriers

    Technological Barriers

    Conceptual Model and Hypothesis Development

    Research Methodology

    Findings and Results

    Evaluation of the measurement model

    Assessment of Higher Order Model


    Summary of Findings

    Limitations and Future Research Directions

    Chapter Summary


    Exploring potentialities and limits of internationalization of high-technology family-owned start-ups in Africa: a PESTEL perspective



    High technology start-ups

    Family-owned startups

    Internationalisation of family-owned start-ups

    PESTEL perspectives on internationalization of high-technology family-owned start-ups.

    Political factors

    Economic factors

    Social factors

    Technological factors

    Environmental factors

    Legal factors

    Diffusion of innovation (DoI) theory

    Information Technology Diffusion Theory (ITDT)

    Theoretical Application to the study

    Conclusions and recommendations



    Marketing Strategies and Performance of Second-hand Spare parts Dealerships: The role of Environmental Dynamism



    Literature Review

    Marketing Strategies

    Influence of Marketing Strategies on Business Performance

    Environmental dynamics as a moderator between marketing strategies and performance


    Research Design

    Data collection


    Analytical Techniques


    Socio-Demographic Characteristics of Respondents

    Descriptive analysis

    Correlation Analysis

    Moderating Analysis

    Regression Analysis

    Conclusions and Implications

    Future Research Directions



    Appendix 1: Socio-Demographic Characteristics of Respondents


    Female entrepreneurship in the tourism industry: A Ghanaian outlook



    The Tourism Industry at a Glance: An African Perspective

    Understanding the Composition of the Tourism Industry

    The Tourism Industry in Ghana Explained

    Women Entrepreneurship: A Holistic Perspective

    Women Entrepreneurship in the Tourism Sector of Africa: An overview

    The Role of Female Entrepreneurs in the Tourism Industry in Ghana


    Assessing Female Entrepreneurs in Transportation and Communication Sector

    Female Entrepreneurs in Service and Facilities

    Female Entrepreneurs in Attractions sub-Sector

    Female Entrepreneurs in Information, Promotion, and Direction


    Policy Implications



    Gender perspectives of African SMEs: The role of formal and informal institutional contexts


    Women-owned SMEs and Africa’s institutional context

    Formal institutional context

    Informal institutional context

    The interconnectedness between women’s SMEs, formal and informal institutional contexts in SSA

    Summary and conclusions



    Women's Access to Financial Capital and High-Growth Enterprises



    Institution and Resource-based theories

    Ease of Doing Business in Africa

    Determinants of Productivity and Firm Growth

    Growth and Level of Entrepreneurial Activity

    Institution and Ease of Doing Business

    Social Cultural barriers

    Infrastructural Challenges

    Access to Financial Capital and Women Entrepreneurship

    Discussion, Conclusion and Implications


    Chapter Ten

    Policy and Managerial Implications for entrepreneurial Practice in Africa


    Conclusions on the role of Marketing on Entrepreneurial success of SMEs

    Conclusions on internationalization of SMEs

    A Discussion of gendered (women) perspectives in promoting entrepreneurship



    Professor Robert Ebo Hinson is the Deputy Vice Chancellor at the University of Kigali. He is also an Extraordinary Professor at the Northwest University Business School and Visiting Professor of Marketing at the Lincoln International Business School. He is also a Professor of Marketing at the University of Ghana and has twenty-three monographs and edited volumes to his name. He was ranked in 2021, the leading marketing scholar in Africa (https://www.adscientificindex.com/scientist.php?id=89518). Kojo Kakra Twum is a lecturer at Presbyterian University College, Ghana. His research interest is focused on entrepreneurial development in higher education in Africa. He has published in entrepreneurship Journals such as Entrepreneurship Education. He recently co-edited a book on Responsible Management in Emerging Markets (https://www.adscientificindex.com/scientist.php?id=89518). Paul Agu Igwe is a senior lecturer in Strategy and Enterprise with Lincoln International Business School, UK. He has led research projects which include African Enterprise Project, DFID/AFCAP Transport and Entrepreneurship Project, and European SMEs competitiveness project. He is published in Business Strategy and Development, Studies in Higher Education, International Journal of Emerging Markets, and the Thunderbird International Business Review. David Rugara is the Head of International Office at Lincoln International Business School, UK. His research interest is focused on entrepreneurship, and he is published in the Thunderbird International Business Review’. Patient Rambe is a Research Professor in Entrepreneurship, a C2 Rated Scientist of National Research Foundation, Director of Center for Enterprise and Entrepreneurship Studies and Leader of entrepreneurship and Innovation Cluster of Higher Education Regional Development in Central Region in South Africa and is the Acting Chair: Faculty Research and Innovation Committee, Department of Business Support Studies, Centra University of Technology, Bloemfontein, South Africa.