The Gamin de Paris in Nineteenth-Century Visual Culture: Delacroix, Hugo, and the French Social Imaginary, 1st Edition (e-Book) book cover

The Gamin de Paris in Nineteenth-Century Visual Culture

Delacroix, Hugo, and the French Social Imaginary, 1st Edition

By Marilyn R. Brown


152 pages | 24 Color Illus. | 37 B/W Illus.

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The revolutionary boy at the barricades was memorably envisioned in Eugène Delacroix’s painting Liberty Leading the People (1830) and Victor Hugo’s novel Les Misérables (1862). Over the course of the nineteenth century, images of the Paris urchin entered the collective social imaginary as cultural and psychic sites of memory, whether in avant-garde or more conventional visual culture. Visual and literary paradigms of the mythical gamin de Paris were born of recurring political revolutions (1830, 1832, 1848, 1871) and of masculine, bourgeois identity constructions that responded to continuing struggles over visions and fantasies of nationhood. With the destabilization of traditional, patriarchal family models, the diminishing of the father’s symbolic role, and the intensification of the brotherly urchin’s psychosexual relationship with the allegorical motherland, what had initially been socially marginal eventually became symbolically central in classed and gendered inventions and repeated re-inventions of "fraternity," "people," and "nation." Within a fundamentally split conception of "the people," the bohemian boy insurrectionary, an embodiment of freedom, was transformed by ongoing discourses of power and reform, of victimization and agency, into a capitalist entrepreneur, schoolboy, colonizer, and budding military defender of the fatherland. A contested figure of the city became a contradictory emblem of the nation.


"Brown’s meticulously researched illuminating study of the trajectory of the gamin across the nineteenth century makes a compelling case for the centrality of the gamin topos in French visual culture … In her perceptive critical reading of individual images Brown offers a compelling demonstration of the challenges and rewards of examining visual culture in relation to political events and the vicissitudes of history."

--Nineteenth-Century Art Worldwide

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

List of Illustrations



Ch. 1 Revolutionary Ancestors of the Gamin de Paris

Ch. 2 Child of the People and Child of the Fatherland in Nineteenth-Century French Social History

Ch. 3 Child of the People and Child of the Fatherland in the French Social Imaginary

Ch. 4 The Gamin de Paris and the Revolution of 1830

Ch. 5 The Gamin de Paris in Panoramic Literature and in the Revolutions of 1848

Ch. 6 The Gamin de Paris, the Second Empire, and the Commune

Ch. 7 The Gamin de Paris during the Early Third Republic



About the Author

Marilyn R. Brown is author of Degas and the Business of Art: A Cotton Office in New Orleans (CAA Monograph, 1994) and editor of, and contributor to, Picturing Children: Constructions of Childhood Between Rousseau and Freud (Ashgate, 2002; Routledge 2017). She is professor of art history at the University of Colorado.

About the Series

Routledge Research in Art History

Routledge Research in Art History is our home for the latest scholarship in the field of art history. The series publishes research monographs and edited collections, covering areas including art history, theory, and visual culture. These high-level books focus on art and artists from around the world and from a multitude of time periods. By making these studies available to the worldwide academic community, the series aims to promote quality art history research.

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Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
ART / General
ART / History / General
ART / European
ART / History / Romanticism
ART / Art & Politics
HISTORY / Europe / General
HISTORY / Europe / France
HISTORY / Modern / 19th Century