1st Edition

The Global Seven Years War 1754-1763 Britain and France in a Great Power Contest

By Daniel Baugh Copyright 2011
    ISBN 9780582092396
    752 Pages
    Published June 23, 2011 by Routledge

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    ISBN 9781138171114
    752 Pages
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    The Seven Years War was a global contest between the two superpowers of eighteenth century Europe, France and Britain.  Winston Churchill called it “the first World War”.  Neither side could afford to lose advantage in any part of the world, and the decisive battles of the war ranged from Fort Duquesne in what is now Pittsburgh to Minorca in the Mediterranean, from Bengal to Quèbec.  By its end British power in North America and India had been consolidated and the foundations of Empire laid, yet at the time both sides saw it primarily as a struggle for security, power and influence within Europe.


    In this eagerly awaited study, Daniel Baugh, the world’s leading authority on eighteenth century maritime history looks at the war as it unfolded from the failure of Anglo-French negotiations over the Ohio territories in 1784 through the official declaration of war in 1756 to the treaty of Paris which formally ended hostilities between England and France in 1763.  At each stage he examines the processes of decision-making on each side for what they can show us about the capabilities and efficiency of the two national governments and looks at what was involved not just in the military engagements themselves but in the complexities of sustaining campaigns so far from home.


    With its panoramic scope and use of telling detail this definitive account will be essential reading for anyone with an interest in military history or the history of eighteenth century Europe.



    Preface and Acknowledgments


    Chapter 1  Introduction

       North America’s Emerging Importance

       Canada’s Utility for France

       A Global Contest

       Geography and Policy


    Chapter 2  Statesmen and Regimes

       The Duke of Newcastle

       The Earl of Hardwicke

       William Pitt

       The Duc de Choiseul


    Chapter 3  Origins: The Contested Regions, 1748-1754

       Acadia and Nova Scotia

       The New York Frontier

       Ohio: The French Predicament

       Ohio: The French Solution

       Virginia Responds

       A Contest in India: Dupleix’s Project


    Chapter 4  Risking War, 1754-1755

       Unreadiness of the British Colonies

       Britain Raises the Stakes

       The Futile Negotiation

       Britain and Europe

       Whitehall Under Pressures, Versailles Under Illusions

    Chapter 5  War Without Declaration: North America, 1755

       The French Navy Wins a Gamble

       Nova Scotia

       Braddock and Disaster

       Campaigns in Northern New York


    Chapter 6   Indecision in Europe: May to December 1755

       Seizure of French Shipping

       The Netherlands and Hanover

       Pitt and the Russian Subsidy

       Paralysis at Versailles


    Chapter 7  French Triumphs, British Blunders, 1756

       France’s Initial War Plan

       France and the Diplomatic Revolution

       Admiral Byng and the French Conquest of Minorca

       Oswego Destroyed

       British and American Armies


    Chapter 8   France’s New War Plan, 1756-1757

       Pitt Attains his Goal

       War Begins on the Continent

       France’s New War Plan

       The Trial of Admiral Byng

       Pitt, George II and Germany

       The French Invasion of Germany

       A Hanoverian Policy

       Louisbourg and Lake George

       The Rochefort Expedition


    Chapter 9  The Tide Turns, 1758

       The French Army in Germany: Defeat and Disaster

       War in India: Bengal

       Achieving Naval Superiority

       Raids on the French Channel Coast

       France in Distress


    Chapter 10 The Atlantic and North America, 1758

       Seapower and Shipping

       West Africa

       Changing Conditions of North American Warfare

       The Conquest of Louisbourg

       Ticonderoga and Frontenac

       Mountains and Indians: The Road to Fort Duquesne


    Chapter 11 The West Indies and North America, 1759

       Martinique and Guadeloupe

       Niagara and Lake Champlain

       Montcalm, Vaudreuil and the Defence of Canada

       The Capture of Quebec


    Chapter 12 The British Victory at Sea, 1759

       Invasion Threat and Blockade of Brest

       Lagos Bay and Quiberon Bay

       France Defeated: The War Lost


    Chapter 13 Britain Conquers Afar, Disunity Looms at Home

       Choiseul’s Approach to Peace, 1759-60

       War in India: The Coromandel Coast

       The Conquest of Canada, 1760

       Pitt and the German War

       The Pitt-Newcastle Administration Undermined


    Chapter 14  The Chance of Peace, 1761

       Antecedents: Spain, Austria, Russia, and Ferdinand’s Winter Campaign

       Choiseul’s Two Negotiations

       Belle-Île and Westphalia

       The Anglo-French Negotiation

       Choiseul and the Lost Chance of Peace

       The Path to War with Spain


    Chapter 15  Peacemaking 1762: Concessions Before Conquests

    Aftermath of Pitt’s Resignation

       The German War and the Prussian Subsidy

       Martinique Conquered

       The Secret Negotiation

       The Defence of Portugal

       The Capture of Havana

       Peace with Bitterness


    Chapter 16   Conclusion and Aftermath

       Fundamental Causes of British Military Success

       Why Peace was Delayed

       The Significance of 1762

       Outcomes: Peace Terms, Finances, Navies, Spain and France

       Britain and North America


    Abbreviations and Short Titles


    Notes on Sources


    Daniel Baugh is Professor Emeritus of History, Cornell University. Born in Philadelphia, he received his Ph.D. from Cambridge University and is author of British Naval Administration in the Age of Walpole (1965).

    "Daniel Baugh's substantial new book on the Seven Years War illuminates the contest across the world - in Europe, North America, the Caribbean, West Africa, and Asia - between the British and the French. He provides a masterly and accessible narrative, based on many years of study and reflection."

    – Stephen Conway, University College London.

    "Daniel Baugh's book meets a genuine need: a one-volume history of the eight-year struggle between Britain and France for maritime and colonial dominance. He presents a clear and engaging narrative, informed and highly informative, smoothly melding political, diplomatic, military, and naval history into a single, persuasive account of a war that was as consequential as it was complex."

    – John Shy, Professor Emeritus of History, University of Michigan

    "Baugh, an eminent naval historian, displays astonishing breadth in describing and analysing the strategies, logistics, politics, and leading personalities of this first Anglo-French global war, fought on four continents and in seven seas. The result is a narrative bristling with fresh and challenging perspectives, insights, and evaluations. Masterful."

    – Ian K. Steele, Professor Emeritus of History, University of Western Ontario

    "This is an important account. It provides a comprehensive and accessible means to follow the war outside Europe, and Baugh's judgements about the skills of those involved are pithy and fair... Both expert and novice will learn much from Baugh's detailed history of a decisive conflict."

    The English Historical Review

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