1st Edition

The Handbook of Impression Formation A Social Psychological Approach

Edited By Emily Balcetis, Gordon B. Moskowitz Copyright 2023
    538 Pages 12 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    538 Pages 12 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    Presenting diverse perspectives from eminent scholars and contemporary researchers, The Handbook of Impression Formation contextualizes current and future areas of research in the social psychology of impression formation within a rich historic framework.

    Affirming that impression formation is at the core of human experience, chapters explore how and why people form snap judgments about others and when those impressions update. They examine the processes through which people infer the reasons for the events they encounter, allowing people to plan for appropriate behavioral responses to social contexts. The research reviewed is informed by the foundational theory of unconscious automatic processes involved in making judgements of other people, pioneered by Professor Jim Uleman who contributes a chapter that suggests important new directions, and concludes the volume by reflecting on the state of the field more broadly. The book explores how certain attributes stimulate categorization, examining current issues around implicit bias, stereotypes, and social media. Chapters cover a range of approaches, featuring personal narratives, presentation of new data and discoveries, comprehensive literature reviews, and contemplations on where the field must go and what questions require focus for progress to be made, calling for even the most advanced scholars to contribute more to the collective investigation of impression formation.

    This fascinating work provides a solid foundation from which all researchers can build a new and unique program of research, and arms the reader with the intellectual tools they need to chart new theoretical territory and discover aspects of the human experience we have yet to even wonder about. It is essential reading for students and academics in social psychology, and the social sciences more broadly.


    Impression Formation in Social Psychology

      Gordon B. Moskowitz and Emily Balcetis

      Part 1: Source of Input to Impression Formation: When Features of the External Physical World Meet Internal Mental Representations

      1. Social Categorizations as Decisions Made Under Uncertainty

      Grace S. R. Gillespie, Jessica L. Shropshire and Kerri L. Johnson

      2. From Spontaneous Trait Inferences to Spontaneous Person Impressions

      Alexander Todorov

      3. Expressed Accuracy: Spontaneous Trait Production and Inference From Voice

      Emily Sands and Lasana T. Harris

      4. O Brother, O Sister, Who Art Thou?: Inferring the Gender of Others in Ambiguous Situations

      Amy Arndt and Marlone Henderson

      5. Differences between Spontaneous and Intentional Trait Inferences

      James S. Uleman

      6. Bridging the Gap between Spontaneous Behavior- and Stereotype-based Impressions

      Jacqueline M. Chen, Kimberly A. Quinn and Keith B. Maddox

      7. The Secret Life of Spontaneous Trait Inferences: Emergence, Puzzles, and Accomplishments

      Leonel Garcia-Marques et al.

      8. Predictively Coding Objects and Persons

      Ethan Ludwin-Peery and Yaacov Trope

      Part 2: Impression Formation Processes: Implicit Effects of Inference and Activation

      9. Reflections on a 30-Year Long Program of Research Exploring Perceivers’ Spontaneous Thoughts about Social Targets

      John J. Skowronski and Randy J. McCarthy

      10. Impression Formation, Right Side Up

      David E. Melnikoff and John A. Bargh

      11. Unintentional Influences in Intentional Impression Formation

      Bertram Gawronski, Skylar M. Brannon and Dillon M. Luke

      12. Stereotypes and Trait Inference

      Jeffrey W. Sherman

      13. Perceiving Group Attributes Spontaneously: Broadening the Domain

      David L. Hamilton and Joel A. Thurston

      14. Forming and Managing Impressions Across Racial Divides

      Cydney H. Dupree

      15. Understanding Guilt-by-Association: A Review of the Psychological Literature on Attitude Transfer and Generalization

      Kate A. Ratliff

      Part 3: The Malleability of First Impressions

      16. Origins of Impression Formation in Infancy

      Brandon M. Woo and J. Kiley Hamlin

      17. Around the World in 80 Milliseconds (or less): Spontaneous Trait Inference Across Cultures

      Leonard S. Newman and Arthur Marsden III

      18. The Updating of First Impressions

      Gordon B. Moskowitz, Irmak Olcaysoy Okten and Erica Schneid

      19. Are We Stuck on The Face? New Evidence for When and How People Update Face-Based Implicit Impressions

      Xi Shen and Melissa Ferguson

      20. Memory Consolidation: The Cornerstone for Gauging Spontaneous Impression Longevity

      Jessica R. Bray, Angel D. Armenta and Michael A. Zárate

      21. Confronting First Impressions: Motivating Self-Regulation of Stereotypes and Prejudice Through Prejudice Confrontation

      Kimberly E. Chaney, Diana T. Sanchez and Jessica D. Remedios

      22. Implicit Person Memory: Domain-General and Domain-Specific Processes of Learning and Change

      Benedek Kurdi and Mahzarin R. Banaji


      23. Impressions of Impression Formation

      James S. Uleman


      Emily Balcetis, director of the New York University Social Perception Action and Motivation research lab, earned her PhD at Cornell University and leads an international team to uncover strategies that increase, sustain, and direct people's efforts to meet their goals.

      Gordon B. Moskowitz, conducts research on social cognition, with a focus on stereotyping, impression formation, minority influence, and the implicit influence of goals on judgment and behavior. His research program more recently has examined interventions to control/reduce implicit bias, with implications for group disparities in health care.

      "This state of the art volume on social cognition brilliantly documents the insights, findings and novel methods brought to bear on this indispensable domain of psychological science. I find it a perfect reference book and a highly useful text for courses and seminars on this topic" — Arie W. Kruglanski, Distinguished University Professor, University of Maryland

      "A remarkable volume on the past, present, and future of research on impression formation, inspired by one its seminal figures." — Daniel Gilbert, Edgar Pierce Professor of Psychology, Harvard University

      "Jim Uleman was ahead of his time, early on recognizing spontaneous trait inferences for their crucial role in impression formation. This array of authors across generations honors his prescience. It’s also a great overview of the current state of the field of impression formation." — Susan T. Fiske, Eugene Higgins Professor, Princeton University

      "This Handbook of Impression Formation contains a remarkable collection of papers that manages to capture the breadth and depth of the most significant work on impression formation. It includes a stellar group of authors representing those who played a historical role in the development of the area of impression formation and those currently breaking new ground both theoretically and empirically in this area. It highlights the power and sweep of this central area of social cognition. For those interested in person perception and social psychology more generally, this Handbook is a must read." — E. Tory Higgins, Stanley Schachter Professor of Psychology and Professor of Business, Columbia University. Author of Shared Reality: What Makes Us Strong and Tears Us Apart