"The Handbook of Religions in Ancient Europe" surveys the major religious currents of Europe before Christianity - the first continental religion with hegemonic ambition - wiped out most local religions. The evidence - whether archaeological or written - is notoriously difficult to interpret, and the variety of religions documented by the sources and the range of languages used are bewildering. The "Handbook" brings together leading authorities on pre-Christian religious history to provide a state-of-the-art survey. The first section of the book covers the Prehistoric period, from the Paleolithic to the Bronze Age. The second section covers the period since writing systems began. Ranging across the Mediterranean and Northern, Celtic and Slavic Europe, the essays assess the archaeological and textual evidence. Dispersed archaeological remains and biased outside sources constitute our main sources of information, so the complex task of interpreting these traces is explained for each case. The "Handbook" also aims to highlight the plurality of religion in ancient Europe: the many ways in which it is expressed, notably in discourse, action, organization, and material culture; how it is produced and maintained by different people with different interests; how communities always connect with or disassociate from adjunct communities and how their beliefs and rituals are shaped by these relationships. The "Handbook" will be invaluable to anyone interested in ancient History and also to scholars and students of Religion, Anthropology, Archaeology, and Classical Studies.
1. Introduction, Lisbeth Bredholt Christensen, Olav Hammer, and David A. Warburton Part I: Prehistoric Religions 2. Studying Prehistoric Religions, Lisbeth Bredholt Christensen and David A. Warburton 3. Prehistoric Material and Religion: A Personal Odyssey, Jarl Nordbladh 4. Francesco d'Errico and the Origins of Religion, David A. Warburton 5. On Paleolithic Religion, Emmanuel Anati 6. Ian Hodder and the Neolithic, Lisbeth Bredholt Christensen and David A. Warburton 7. Neolithic Cult Images? The Testimony of Figurines for Neolithic Religion, Jorg Petrasch 8. Religious Practices in Northern Europe 4000-2000 BC, Charlotte Damm 9. Mythological Aspects of Nordic Bronze Age Religion, Flemming Kaul 10. Religion and Society in the Bronze Age, Kristian Kristiansen 11. The Religions of Prehistoric Europe & the Study of Prehistoric Religion, Lisbeth Bredholt Christensen and David A. Warburton Part II: Ancient Europe in the Historical Period 12. Minoan and Mycenaean Religion, David A. Warburton 13. Etruscan Religion, Jean M. Turfa 14. The Religions of the Iberian Peninsula, F. Marco Simon 15. Italic Religion, Guy Bradley and Fay Glinister 16. Roman Religion, Susanne William Rasmussen 17. Ancient Greek Religion, Lars Albinus 18. The Graeco-Roman Cult of Isis, Birgitte Bogh 19. The Cult of Mithras, Manfred Clauss 20. Religious Platonism: Philosophy and Religion in the Platonic Tradition, Kevin Corrigan and Michael Harrington 21. Insular Celtic Religion, Karen Bek-Pedersen 22. Continental Germanic Religion, Rudolf Simek 23. Pre-Christian Anglo-Saxon Religion, John D. Niles 24. Old Norse Religion, Britt-Mari Nasstrom 25. Slavic Religion, Leszek Slupecki 26. Baltic Religion, Sigma Ankrava 27. Religion in Prehistoric Finland, Veikko Anttonen 28. Sami Religion, Hakan Rydving