1st Edition

The Handbook of Sex Differences Volume IV Identifying Universal Sex Differences

    920 Pages 1 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    The Handbook of Sex Differences is a four-volume reference work written to assess sex differences, with a primary focus on the human species. Based on the authors’ highly influential 2008 book Sex Differences, these volumes highlight important new research findings from the last decade and a half alongside earlier findings.

    In this, the work’s fourth and last volume, two related questions are addressed: Are there universal sex differences (i.e., sex differences found in all societies)? And if the answer is yes, what are they and how can each one be theoretically explained? To answer the first of these two questions, this volume condenses much of the research findings amassed in the book’s first three volumes into summary tables. Then, to help identify likely universal sex differences, three versions of social role theory and two versions of evolutionary theory are examined relative to each possible universal sex difference. Consideration is even given to religious scriptures as a sixth type of explanation. In the concluding analyses, 308 likely universal sex differences are identified. No single theory was able to explain all these differences. Nevertheless, the two evolutionary theories were better in this regard than any of the three social role theories, including the recently proposed biosocial version of social role theory.

    The Handbook of Sex Differences is of importance for any researcher, student, or professional who requires a comprehensive resource on sex differences.

    24. Theories Pertaining to Why Universal Sex Differences Might Exist  25. Sex Difference Variables with Ten or More Findings  26. Identifying and Theoretically Explaining Each Potential Universal Sex Difference  27. Tabular Listings of the Universal Sex Differences in Order of the Evidentiary Strength  28. Epilogue


    Lee Ellis is a semi-retired American researcher whose last position was that of a visiting professor in the Department of Anthropology and Sociology, at the University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Craig T. Palmer is a semi-retired associate professor in the Department of Anthropology at the University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri, USA.

    Rosemary Hopcroft is a professor in the Department of Sociology at the University of North Carolina, Charlotte, North Carolina, USA.

    Anthony W. Hoskin is a professor in the Department of Sociology, Social Work, and Criminology, at Idaho State University, Pocatello, Idaho, USA.