The Induction Machines Design Handbook: 2nd Edition (Hardback) book cover

The Induction Machines Design Handbook

2nd Edition

By Ion Boldea, Syed A. Nasar

CRC Press

845 pages | 508 B/W Illus.

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Hardback: 9781420066685
pub: 2009-12-09
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Developments in power electronics and digital control have made the rugged, low-cost, high-performance induction machine the popular choice of electric generator/motor in many industries. As the induction machine proves to be an efficient power solution for the flexible, distributed systems of the near future, the dynamic worldwide market continues to grow. It is imperative that engineers have a solid grasp of the complex issues of analysis and design associated with these devices.

The Induction Machines Design Handbook, Second Edition satisfies this need, providing a comprehensive, self-contained, and up-to-date reference on single- and three-phase induction machines in constant and variable speed applications. Picking up where the first edition left off, this book taps into the authors’ considerable field experience to fortify and summarize the rich existing literature on the subject. Without drastically changing the effective logical structure and content of the original text, this second edition acknowledges notable theoretical and practical developments in the field that have occurred during the eight years since the first publication. It makes corrections and/or improvements to text, formulae, and figures.


New material includes:

  • Introduction of more realistic specifications and reworked numerical calculations in some of the examples
  • Changes in terminology
  • Discussion of some novel issues, with illustrative results from recent literature
  • New and updated photos
  • Data on new mild magnetic materials (metglass)
  • An industrial "sinusoidal" two-phase winding
  • Illustrations of finite element method airgap flux density
  • Enhanced presentations of unbalanced voltage and new harmonic-rich voltage supply IM performance
  • Discussion of stator (multiconductor) winding skin effect by finite element method

Broad coverage of induction machines includes applications, principles and topologies, and materials, with numerical examples, analysis of transient behavior waveforms and digital simulations, and design sample cases. The authors address both standard and new subjects of induction machines in a way that will be both practically useful and inspirational for the future endeavors of professionals and students alike.

Table of Contents

Induction Machines: An Introduction

Electric energy and induction motors

A historical touch

Induction machines in applications

Construction Aspects and Operation Principles

Construction aspects of rotary IMs

Construction aspects of linear induction motors

Operation principles of IMs

Magnetic, Electric, and Insulation Materials for IM

Soft magnetic materials

Core (magnetic) losses

Electrical conductors

Insulation materials

Induction Machine Windings and Their MMFs

The ideal traveling mmf of a.c. windings

A primitive single-layer winding

A primitive two-layer chorded winding

The mmf harmonics for integer q

Rules for designing practical a.c. windings

Basic fractional q three-phase a.c. windings

Basic pole-changing three-phase a.c. windings

Two-phase a.c. windings

Pole-changing with single-phase supply induction motors

Special topics on a.c. windings

The mmf of rotor windings

The "skewing" mmf concept

The Magnetization Curve and Inductance

Equivalent airgap to account for slotting

Effective stack length

The basic magnetization curve

The emf in an a.c. winding

The magnetization inductance

Leakage Inductances and Resistances

Leakage fields

Differential leakage inductances

Rectangular slot leakage inductance/single layer

Rectangular slot leakage inductance/two layers

Rounded shape slot leakage inductance/two layers

Zig-zag airgap leakage inductances

End-connection leakage inductance

Skewing leakage inductance

Rotor bar and end ring equivalent leakage inductance

Basic phase resistance

The cage rotor resistance

Simplified leakage saturation corrections

Reducing the rotor to stator

Steady-State Equivalent Circuit and Performance

Basic steady-state equivalent circuit

Classification of operation modes

Ideal no-load operation

Short-circuit (zero speed) operation

No-load motor operation

The motor mode of operation

Generating to power grid

Autonomous induction generator mode

The electromagnetic torque

Efficiency and power factor

Phasor diagrams: Standard and new

Alternative equivalent circuits

Unbalanced supply voltages

One stator phase is open

Unbalanced rotor windings

One rotor phase is open

When voltage varies around rated value

When stator voltage have time harmonics

Starting and Speed Control Methods

Starting of cage-rotor induction motors

Starting of wound-rotor induction motors

Speed control methods for cage-rotor induction motors

Variable frequency methods

Speed control methods for wound rotor IMs

Skin and On-Load Saturation Effects

The skin effect

Skin effects by the multilayer approach

Skin effect in the end rings via the multilayer approach

The double cage behaves like a deep bar cage

Leakage flux path saturation-a simplified approach

Leakage saturation and skin effects-a comprehensive analytical approach

The FEM approach

Standardized line-start induction motors

Airgap Field Space Harmonics, Parasitic Torques, Radial Forces, and Noise

Stator mmf produced airgap flux harmonics

Airgap field of a squirrel cage winding

Airgap conductance harmonics

Leakage saturation influence on airgap conductance

Main flux saturation influence on airgap conductance

The harmonics-rich airgap flux density

The eccentricity influence on airgap magnetic conductance

Interactions of mmf (or step) harmonics and airgap magnetic conductance harmonics

Parasitic torques

Radial forces and electromagnetic noise

Losses in Induction Machines

Loss classifications

Fundamental electromagnetic losses

No-load space harmonics (stray no-load) losses in nonskewed IMs

Load space harmonics (stray load) losses in nonskewed IMs

Flux pulsation (stray) losses in skewed insulated bars

Interbar current losses in uninsulated skewed rotor cages

No-load rotor skewed uninsulated cage losses

Load rotor skewed uninsulated cage losses

Rules to reduce full load stray (space harmonics) losses

High frequency time harmonics losses

Computation of time harmonics conductor losses

Time harmonics interbar rotor current losses

Computation of time harmonic core losses

Thermal Modeling and Cooling

Some air cooling methods for IMs

Conduction heat transfer

Convection heat transfer

Heat transfer by radiation

Heat transport (thermal transients) in a homogenous body

Induction motor thermal transients at stall

Intermittent operation

Temperature rise (TON) and fall (TOFF) times

More realistic thermal equivalent circuits for IMs

A detailed thermal equivalent circuit for transients

Thermal equivalent circuit identification

Thermal analysis through FEM

Induction Machine Transients

The phase coordinate model

The complex variable model

Steady state by the complex variable model

Equivalent circuits for drives

Electrical transients with flux linkages as variables

Including magnetic saturation in the space phasor model

Saturation and core loss inclusion into the state–space model

Reduced order models

The sudden short-circuit at terminals

Most severe transients (so far)

The abc–dq model for PWM inverter fed IMs

First order models of IMs for steady-state stability in power systems

Multimachine transients

Subsynchronous resonance (SSR)

The m/Nr actual winding modeling for transients

Motor Specifications and Design Principles

Typical load shaft torque/speed envelopes

Derating due to voltage time harmonics

Voltage and frequency variation

Specifying induction motors for constant V and f

Matching IMs to variable speed/torque loads

Design factors

Design features

The output coefficient design concept

The rotor tangential stress design concept

IM Design Below 100KW and Constant V and f (Size Your Own IM)

Design specifications by example

The algorithm

Main dimensions of stator core

The stator winding

Stator slot sizing

Rotor slots

The magnetization current

Resistances and inductances

Losses and efficiency

Operation characteristics

Temperature rise

IM Design Above 100KW and Constant V and f (Size Your Own IM)

High voltage stator design

Low voltage stator design

Deep bar cage rotor design

Double cage rotor design

Wound rotor design

IM with wound rotor-performance computation

Induction Machine Design for Variable Speed

Power and voltage derating

Reducing the skin effect in windings

Torque pulsations reduction

Increasing efficiency

Increasing the breakdown torque

Wide constant power speed range via voltage management

Design for high and super-high speed applications

Sample design approach for wide constant power speed range

Optimization Design

Essential optimization design methods

The augmented Lagrangian multiplier method (ALMM)

Sequential unconstrained minimization

A modified Hooke–Jeeves method

Genetic algorithms

Three Phase Induction Generators

Self-excited induction generator (SEIG) modeling

Steady state performance of SEIG

The second order slip equation model for steady state

Steady state characteristics of SEIG for given speed and capacitor

Parameter sensitivity in SEIG analysis

Pole changing SEIGs

Unbalanced steady state operation of SEIG

Transient operation of SEIG

SEIG transients with induction motor load

Parallel operation of SEIGs

The doubly-fed IG connected to the grid

Linear Induction Generators

Classifications and basic topologies

Primary windings

Transverse edge effect in double-sided LIM

Transverse edge effect in single-sided LIM

A technical theory of LIM longitudinal end effects

Longitudinal end-effect waves and consequences

Secondary power factor and efficiency

The optimum goodness factor

Linear flat induction actuators (no longitudinal end-effect)

Tubular LIAs

Short-secondary double-sided LIAs

Linear induction motors for urban transportation

Transients and control of LIMs

Electromagnetic induction launchers

Super-High Frequency Models and Behavior of IMs

Three high frequency operation impedances

The differential impedance

Neutral and common mode impedance models

The super-high frequency distributed equivalent circuit

Bearing currents caused by PWM inverters

Ways to reduce PWM inverter bearing currents

Testing of Three-Phase IMs

Loss segregation tests

Efficiency measurements

The temperature-rise test via forward short-circuit (FSC) method

Parameter estimation tests

Noise and vibration measurements: from no-load to load

Single-Phase Induction Machines: The Basics

Split-phase induction motors

Capacitor induction motors

The nature of stator-produced airgap field

The fundamental mmf and its elliptic wave

Forward-backward mmf waves

The symmetrical components general model

The d-q model

The d-q model of star Steinmetz connection

Single-Phase Induction Motors: Steady State

Steady state performance with open auxiliary winding

The split-phase and the capacitor IM: currents and torque

Symmetrization conditions

Starting torque and current inquires

Typical motor characteristic

Nonorthogonal stator windings

Symmetrization conditions for nonorthogonal windings

Mmf space harmonic parasitic torques

Torque pulsations

Inter-bar rotor currents

Voltage harmonics effects

The doubly tapped winding capacitor IM

Single-Phase IM Transients

The d-q model performance in stator coordinates

Starting transients

The multiple reference model for transients

Including the space harmonics

Single-Phase Induction Generators

Steady state model and performance

The d-q model for transients

Expanding the operation range with power electronics

Single-Phase IM Design

Sizing the stator magnetic circuit

Sizing the rotor magnetic circuit

Sizing the stator windings

Resistances and leakage reactances

The magnetization reactance Xmm

The starting torque and current

Steady state performance around rated power

Guidelines for a good design

Optimization design issues

Single-Phase IM Testing

Loss segregation in split-phase and capacitor-start IMs

The case of closed rotor slots

Loss segregation in permanent capacitor IMs

Speed (slip) measurements

Load testing

Complete torque-speed curve measurements


About the Authors/Editor

Professor Ion Boldea, University Politehnica, Timisoara, Romania, is an IEEE Fellow and has worked, published, lectured and consulted extensively on linear and rotary electric motors and generators: theory, design and control. He has published 13 books in USA and UK throughout the last 30 years.

Professor Syed Abu Nasar is James R. Boyd Professor of Electrical Engineering (Emeritus) at the University of Kentucky. He was born in India and got his doctorate in Electrical Engineering at the University of California, Berkeley in 1963. His research concerns electric motors. He served as the chair of the Electrical Engineering department at the University of Kentucky from 1989 to 1997. He is a Life Fellow of the IEEE and the recipient of the 2000 IEEE Nikola Tesla Award.

About the Series

Electric Power Engineering Series

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Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Industrial Engineering
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Industrial Design / General