1st Edition

The International Relations of California and Texas with Mexico and the World Cali-Tex-Mex

    332 Pages 18 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    This book analyzes the international relations of Mexico and the two most important sub-state governments of the United States, California and Texas. It explains why and how these two states conduct their international relations (IR) with Mexico and the world, and how national authorities and local governments coordinate in the definition and implementation of their international policies. Expert contributors from across the Americas offer a historical and current analysis, exploring which areas of cooperation—trade, investment, border cooperation, energy, migration—matter most. They also consider the institutional and legal bases of Mexican and U.S. states’ international relations, the changing nature of the U.S. federal system, the impact on international partners, the role of Latinos and the future of paradiplomacy in the region. The book will be of interest to scholars and students of International Relations, comparative politics, diplomacy, foreign policy, governance, and federalism, as well as business people, social leaders, and practitioners of diplomacy and paradiplomacy around the world.

    Introduction Jorge A. Schiavon and Rafael Fernández de Castro

    Section I: California and Texas in the U.S. and international systems

    1.The International Relations of State Governments in the U.S.-Mexico Relationship Jorge A. Schiavon and Samuel Lucas McMillan

    2.California in the U.S. Federal System and its Relations with Washington Fernando Guerra

    3.Texas and the U.S. Federal Government James Henson

    4.California’s International Relations in a Globalized World Rafael Velázquez Flores and Alejandro Monjaraz Sandoval

    5.Texas’s International Relations with Mexico and the World James Gerber

    Section II: The central issues in the California-Mexico and Texas-Mexico relationships

    6.Trade and Investment: Mexico-California Claudia A. Fernández Calleros and Mario Rodríguez-Heredia

    7.Trade and Investment in the Texas-Mexico Relationship W. Michael Cox and Richard Alm

    8. Baja-California: From the 21st Century Border to Exclusion under COVID-19, 2001-2020 José María Ramos

    9. Too Close for Comfort: The Restive Border as a Symbol of Texas-Mexico Relations Tony Payan

    10. Energy in the Mexico-Texas and Mexico-California Relationships John McNeece and Alan Sweedler

    11. Immigration Enforcement, Sanctuary Policies and Demographic Change in California and Texas: 1990-2021 Rafael Fernández de Castro and René Zenteno

    12. Texas vs. California: Latino Politics and Relations with Mexico David R. Ayón

    Section III: Mexico’s diplomacy in California and Texas

    13. Fighting Identity Disputes: Mexico’s Consular Diplomacy in Texas and California Carlos González Gutiérrez

    14. Mexican Diplomacy in California Liliana Ferrer

    15. Mexican Diplomacy in Texas Francisco de la Torre Galindo

    Conclusions Rafael Fernández de Castro and Jorge A. Schiavon


    Jorge A. Schiavon is Professor of International Relations at the Centro de Investigación y Docencia Económicas (CIDE) and Visiting Professor at the Instituto Tecnológico Autonómo de México (ITAM). His most recent books are Introducción al Estudio de la Política Exterior de México (1821-2021) (coauthored) and Comparative Paradiplomacy.

    Rafael Fernández de Castro is a professor at UC San Diego’s School of Global Policy and Strategy and Director of its Center for U.S.-Mexican Studies. His publications include Contemporary U.S.-Latin American Relations: Cooperation or Conflict in the 21st Century? (coedited) and The United States and Mexico: Between Partnership and Conflict (coauthored).


    "This is a very important book for anyone interested in paradiplomacy studies. By focusing in their analysis on two of the most important states of the United States, in relation with Mexico but also the world, the editors of this book make us discover the depth of international actions of substate government in the field of trade, investment, cross-border cooperation, but also energy and migration. For me, this is the most comprehensive analysis ever published on these topics. Not to be missed."

    Stéphane Paquin

    Professor, École nationale d’administration publique, Québec, Canada.


    "This very informative volume illustrates the growing complexity of "foreign relations" in the twenty-first century. California and Texas share a common border with Mexico but in terms of domestic political priorities, they are often as different as night and day. The book examines how each state interacts with its sovereign neighbor to the south, and how Mexico selectively engages with these powerful U.S. states which each rank among the ten largest "national" economies in the world."

    Earl H. Fry

    Professor, Brigham Young University, USA


    "U.S.-Mexico relations impact the daily lives of more Americans than any other bilateral relationship in the world, and Texas and California are the quintessential examples of the deeply interconnected, vitally important and often challenging relationship between the United States and its southern neighbor. This new book provides a collection of well researched, solidly argued and genuinely insightful chapters exploring the multifaceted relations between Mexico and the United States through the lens of the too often neglected subnational or substate connections that tie Texas and California to Mexico and vice versa. The reader comes to understand the opportunities and serious challenges that characterize ties between the two neighbors through the invaluable lens of these cross-border, sub-federal relationships. The impressive collection of authors gives the reader penetrating looks at the place of these two states in the United States and explore each state's economic, political, social, cultural and historic ties to Mexico. The book also astutely penetrates, dissects, and explains Mexico's efforts to engage with California and Texas to deepen relations with these two vital political and economic subnational U.S. actors as well as to care for the sizable Mexican communities in each state. As a result, the reader can see with much more understanding and clarity the indispensable relationship between these neighbors, going far beyond the day to day headlines. One comes to understand much more concretely the essential diplomacy, problem-solving and relationship-building that take place at the subnational and local levels especially between neighbors. This book provides a fresh, eye-opening, deep understanding of how important these ties are and will remain."

    Earl Anthony (Tony) Wayne

    Career Ambassador (ret) and Distinguished Diplomat in Residence, School of International Service, American University


    "Former President George W. Bush rightfully said, `the United States has no more important relationship in the world than the one we have with Mexico.´ Much of what defines bilateral relations comes from states, particularly Texas and California. This book is a much needed and insightful study of how these two states define their interests and engage with their neighbor, in the process shaping national policies and international outcomes."

    Shannon K. O'Neil

    Vice President of Studies and Nelson and David Rockefeller Senior Fellow for Latin America Studies, Council on Foreign Relations


    "In scholarly accounts of US-Mexico relations, their respective federal governments were traditionally the principal actors. This exciting new volume gives center-stage to sub-national governments, examining their international relations with counterparts and the central government in the other country. California and Texas serve as the U.S. case studies, while scores of Mexican state governments feature on the other side. Schiavon, Fernández de Castro, and their fellow-authors present expert analyses of the fascinating range of interactions constituting paradiplomacy between Mexico and the U.S. Clearly paradiplomacy draws Mexico ever closer to the U.S., causing one to wonder what Porfirio Díaz would have said of this tightening embrace."

    Deon Geldenhuys, Ph.D.

    Emeritus Professor, University of Johannesburg, South Africa


    "Paradiplomacy, the international activity of sub-national governments, seldom receives attention proportionate to its significance. Nowhere is it more important than across the border between Mexico and the United States. This volume provides a comprehensive analysis of the international relations of Mexican states with their most important U.S. counterparts, California and Texas, covering not just trade and investment but also migration and cooperation on border security (broadly defined). A must-read for anyone wanting to understand the complexities of these important relationships."

    John Ravenhill

    Professor, University of Waterloo, Canada


    "This is a path-breaking and compelling examination of U.S.-Mexico relations that convincingly adopts an unexpected analytical prism: it underlines the imperative need to approach these relations paying attention, without ignoring the wider regional and bilateral context, to the growing importance of the paradiplomacy deployed by U.S. states —and more specifically California and Texas— and their Mexican counterparts, and the complex interplay between public and private interests it entails. The editors have made an extraordinary work leading an outstanding interdisciplinary team of nothing less than twenty-on scholars. All together, they examine the most relevant dimensions of North American relations —i.e. politics and diplomacy, trade and investment, migration and other relevant social issues, critical infrastructures, technology, environmental security and energy— offering always empirically grounded balanced conclusions, sharp policy advise and enlightening foresights."

    Noé Cornago

    Associate Professor, University of the Basque Country and USC-CPD Research Fellow, Spain