Incorporating published and archival material, this volume fills an important gap in the history of the Jewish experience during World War II, describing how the war affected Jews living along the southern rim of the Mediterranean and the Levant, from Morocco to Iran.
Surviving the Nazi slaughter did not mean that Jews living in the Middle East and North Africa were unaffected by the war: there was constant anti-Semitic propaganda and general economic deprivation; communities were bombed; and Jews suffered because of the anti-Semitic Vichy regulations that left them unemployed, homeless, and subject to forced labor and deportation to labor camps. Nevertheless, they fought for the Allies and assisted the Americans and the British in the invasion of North Africa. These men and women were community leaders and average people who, despite their dire economic circumstances, worked with the refugees attempting to escape the Nazis via North Africa, Turkey, or Iran and connected with international aid agencies during and after the war. By 1945, no Jewish community had been left untouched, and many were financially decimated, a situation that would have serious repercussions on the future of Jews in the region.
Covering the entire Middle East and North Africa region, this book on World War II is a key resource for students, scholars, and general readers interested in Jewish history, World War II, and Middle East history.
Table of Contents
Chapter 1. The Jews of the Middle East and North Africa on the Eve of World War II
Chapter 2. The Issue of Racism and Opposition to Nazism
Chapter 3. German and Italian Policy and the Issue of Palestine
II. THE WAR BEGINS
Chapter 4. The War Begins: The War in the Levant
Chapter 5. The Threat to Palestine
Chapter 6. Iraq and the Farhud in Baghdad
Chapter 7. Vichy in Syria and Lebanon
Chapter 8. Iran and the "Tehran Children"
III. THE WAR CONTINUES
Chapter 9. The War Continues: The North African Campaign
Chapter 10. Egypt and the Panic of 1942
Chapter 11. Bombings and Deportations in Libya
Chapter 12. Algeria and "Operation Torch"
Chapter 13. The Nazi SS in Tunisia
Chapter 14. Morocco, Labor Camps and Refugees
Chapter 15. Turkish Neutrality and Refugees
Chapter 16. The War Ends: Epilogue
Reeva Spector Simon served as Associate Director of the Middle East Institute, Columbia University, and Professor of History at Yeshiva University. She is the author of Iraq Between the Two World Wars and co-editor of The Jews of the Middle East and North Africa in Modern Times.