The MOCVD Challenge
Volume 2: A Survey of GaInAsP-GaAs for Photonic and Electronic Device Applications
The MOCVD Challenge: Volume 2, A Survey of GaInAsP-GaAs for Photonic and Electronic Device Applications focuses on GaAs systems and devices grown by MOCVD, specifically MOCVD growth of GaAs and related alloys and GaInP for photonic and electronic applications. Along with Volume 1, this book provides a personal account of the author's own pioneering research, an authoritative overview of the development of the MOCVD technique, and the technique's impact on the development of new materials, devices, and their applications.
Coverage begins with an introduction to III-V compounds and devices and growth techniques for multilayers and heterostructures. The book then details how an MOCVD system works and how design affects material growth and sourcing of precursor materials. It also examines ^Iin- and ^Iex-situ growth techniques, with the differential reflectivity treatment applied to lattice matched and mis-matched conditions. The author gives an in-depth treatment of the GaInPGaAs system, including optical investigations of quantum wells and superlattices. The book concludes with an up-to-date discussion of the current use, novel developments, and future potential for optical devices, GaAs-based lasers and heterojunctions, and optoelectronic integrated circuits.
The MOCVD Challenge is an invaluable introduction and guide for researchers in materials science, applied physics, and electrical engineering, who study the properties and applications of compound (III-V) semiconductor materials.
Professor Manijeh Razeghi is director of the Center for Quantum Devices at Northwestern University and leads an internationally renowned research team exploring the use of the MOCVD growth technique. Formerly head of research at Thomson-CSF in France, she was awarded the IBM Europe Science and Technology Prize for her early research into MOCVD.
Table of Contents
Preface. Foreword. Introduction. Introduction to semiconductor compounds: III-V semiconductor alloys; III-V semiconductor devices; Technology of multilayer growth; References. MOCVD growth technique: MOCVD growth systems; The MOCVD growth mechanism and growth process; Gas flow patterns and reactor design; MOCVD starting materials; Low-pressure MOCVD and MOMBE; References. ^IIn-situ^N characterization during MOCVD: Introduction; Reflectance anisotropy and ellipsometry; Optimization of the growth of III-V binaries by RDS; RDS investigation of III-V lattice-matched heterojunctions; RDS investigation of III-V lattice-mismatched structures; Insights on the growth process; References. ^IEx-situ^N characterization techniques: Chemical bevel revelation; Deep-level transient spectroscopy; X-ray diffraction; Photoluminescence; Electrochemical capacitance-voltage and photovoltage spectroscopy; Resistivity and Hall measurement; Thickness measurement; References. MOCVD growth of GaAs layers: Introduction; GaAs and related compounds band structure; MOCVD growth mechanism of GaAs and related compounds; Experimental details; Incorporation of impurities in GaAs grown by MOCVD; References. Growth and characterization of the GaInP-GaAs system: Introduction; Growth details; Structural order in Ga^OxIn^O1-xP alloys grown by MOCVD; Defects in GaInP layers grown by MOCVD; Doping behaviour of GaInP; GaAs-GaInP heterostructures; Growth and characterization of GaInP-GaAs multilayers by MOCVD; Optical and structural investigations of GaAs-GaInP quantum wells and superlattices grown by MOCVD. Characterization of GaAs-GaInP quantum wells by Auger analysis on chemical bevels; Evaluation of the band offsets of GaAs/GaInP multilayers by electroreflectance (Razeghi ^Iet al^N 1992); Intersubband hole absorption in GaAs-GaInP quantum wells; References. Optical Devices: Electro-optical Modulators; GaAs-based infrared photodetectors grown by MOCVD; Solar cells and GaAs solar cells; References. GaAs-based lasers: Introduction; Basic physical concepts; Laser structures; New GaAs-based materials for lasers; References. GaAs- based heterojunction electron devices grown by MOCVD: Introduction; Heterostructure field-effect transistors (HFETs); Heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs); References. Optoelectronic integrated circuits (OEICs): Introduction; Material considerations; OEICs on Si substrate; The role of optoelectronic integration in computing; Examples of optoelectronic integration by MOCVD; References. Appendices. Effect of substrate miscut on the measured superlattice period. Optimization of thickness and In composition of InGaAs well for 980 nm lasers: References. Energy levels and laser gains in a quantum well (GaInAsP): the `effective mass approximation'. Luttinger-Kohn Hamiltonian: ^Ik . p^N theory; Luttinger-Kohn Hamiltonian; References. Infrared detectors: Classification; General theory of photodetectors; References. Index.