1st Edition

The Modern Memory of the Military-religious Orders Engaging the Crusades, Volume Seven

Edited By Rory MacLellan Copyright 2023
    130 Pages 18 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    This volume examines the pervasive and persistent appropriations of the military orders across a broad chronology and several regions, including Mexico, Brazil, and Greece, areas beyond the traditional focus of prior research in medievalism.

    Templars, Hospitallers, and Teutonic Knights, the military orders are among the most iconic aspects of the crusades and several still survive as chivalric honours or charitable organisations. In popular culture, the orders, particularly the Templars, have been the subject of or inspiration for films, books, television, and video games, from Star Wars to The Da Vinci Code and Assassin’s Creed. In this volume, an overview of the early legacies of the military orders in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries is followed by studies of the Templar conspiracy theories of Rosslyn Chapel, the Venerable Order of St John’s creation of a medieval past, the legacy of the Hospitallers in modern Greece, the military orders in nineteenth-century Mexico, and the use of the Knights Templar by the far-right in Bolsonaro’s Brazil. Ultimately, it expands the scope of the field and indicates further avenues for research.

    The Modern Memory of the Military-religious Orders is a valuable resource for students and scholars of the crusades, the military orders, and medievalism.


    Rory MacLellan

    1. Memories of the Military Orders in Britain in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries

    Rory MacLellan

    2. Rosslyn Chapel: Templar Pseudo-history, ‘Symbology’, and the Far-right

    Lizzie Swarbrick

    3. Acquiring Heritage: The Venerable Order of St John and the Accumulation of its Past (1858-1931)

    Nigel Hankin

    4. Reconstructing the Past: The Memory and Tradition of the Order of the Hospitaller Knights of St John in Modern Greece (19th-20th Centuries)

    Photeine Perra

    5. Taking the Cross and Asserting Freedom: Catholic Liberalism, the Military Orders, and the Perception of the Crusades in Mexico in the first half of the 19th Century

    Ignacio Garcia Lascurain Bernstorff

    6. The Internet Crusade Against Communism: Political neomedievalism in 21st century Brazil

    Luiz Felipe Anchieta Guerra


    Rory MacLellan is a postdoctoral research fellow at Historic Royal Palaces. He specialises in medieval religious history, especially the crusades and the military-religious orders. His first book is Donations to the Knights Hospitaller in Britain and Ireland, 1291–1400 (2021).