The Orienting Reflex in Humans
An International Conference Sponsored by the Scientific Affairs Division of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Originally published in 1979, the world’s leading researchers contributed chapters describing their work on the orienting reflex in humans. The contributions, at the time current and comprehensive, in a sense that each facet of contemporary research was represented, address the orienting reflex, now recognized as a fundamental component of human learning and cognitive function. The authors contributing to this volume emphasize both theoretical and methodological issues, as well as present more empirical research. Here is a volume that spans all current work on the orienting reflex in humans, both basic and applied, from the laboratory as well as clinical data, and which would be of immense interest to psychologists, psychophysiologists, psychiatrists, physiologists, and all others interested in this fascinating topic.
Table of Contents
Prologue. Part 1: Physiological Mechanisms of the Orienting Reflex 1. The Orienting Reaction: Key to Brain Re-presentational Mechanisms Karl H. Pribram 2. Habituation and the Orienting Reflex: The Dual-Process Theory Revisited Richard F. Thompson, Stephen D. Berry, Patricia C. Rinaldi and Theodore W. Berger 3. Orienting and Evoked Potentials Risto Näätänen 4. Event-Related Slow Potentials of the Brain as Expressions of Orienting Function N.E. Loveless 5. Maintenance and Habituation of the Phasic Orienting Response to Competing Stimuli in Selective Attention William F. Waters and Dennis C. Wright 6. Habituation of the Components of the AEP to Stimuli of Different Intensities Werner Lutzenberger, Rainer Schandry and Niels Birbaumer 7. Interstimulus Interval Length and Habituation of the P300 Rainer Schandry and Siegfried Hoeffling Part 2: Cardiac and Motor Processes in Orienting 8. Distinguishing Among Orienting, Defense, and Startle Reflexes Frances K. Graham 9. Orienting Activity in Two-Stimulus Paradigms as Reflected in Heart Rate Gunilla Bohlin and Anders Kjellberg 10. Orienting and Defensive Cardiac Responses Manfred Velden and Ruth Schumacher 11. Myocardial Performance and Stress: Implications for Basic and Clinical Research Paul A. Obrist, Alan W. Langer, Kathleen C. Light, Alberto Grignolo and James A. McCubbin 12. Some Questions about the Motor Inhibition Hypothesis C. H. M. Brunia 13. A Psychobiological Approach to the Differentiation of Orienting and Defense Responses Graham Turpin 14. Evaluation of Temporal Vasomotor Components of Orienting and Defensive Responses Brett E. Skolnick, Larry C. Walrath and John A. Stern 15. Neonatal Heart-Rate Response to Auditory Stimuli Varying in Intensity over Trials James N. Ver Hoeve Part 3: Orienting and Behavioral Plasticity 16. Unconditioned and Conditioned Orienting Reflex: Psychophysiological Investigations Robert Floru 17. Interrelationships Among Components of Orienting Behavior William W. Grings 18. Orienting Reflexes and Classical Conditioning in Humans Irving Maltzman 19. A Pavlovian Psychophysiological Perspective on the OR: The Facts of the Matter John J. Furedy and J. M. Arabian 20. The Effect of Stimulus Intensity and Intertrial Interval on Long-Term Retention of the OR R. L. Ray 21. A Comparison of the Pupillary and Electrodermal Components of the Orienting Reflex in Sensitivity to Initial Stimulus Presentation, Repetition, and Change T. F. Maher and J. J. Furedy 22. The Effects of Representation of an Habituation Stimulus Coincident with a Period of High Arousal on Long-Term Habituation of the Electrodermal Orienting Response David Stephenson 23. Pavlovian First and Second Signal System Influences on the SCR Component of the Orienting Reflex Michael A. Biferno 24. The Orienting Component of the Classically Conditioned GSR Avrum I. Silver and Robert McCaffery 25. The Orienting Response and Subjective Assessment of Stimulus Significance Michael E. Dawson Part 4: Attentional and Cognitive Factors in Orienting 26. Monotony and Uncertainty in the Habituation of the Orienting Reflex H. D. Kimmel, Joan Piroch and R. L. Ray 27. The Orienting Response, Attention, and Learning: An Information-Processing Perspective Arne Öhman 28. Orienting Response and Information-Processing: Some Theoretical and Empirical Problems David A. T. Siddle and John A. Spinks 29. The Interaction of Stimulus Information with Potential Stimulus Significance in Eliciting the Skin Conductance Orienting Response Alvin S. Bernstein and Kenneth W. Taylor 30. Stimulus Significance and the Orienting Reaction Evert H. van Olst, Menno L. Heemstra and Thomas ten Kortenaar 31. Orienting Reflex and Uncertainty Reduction in a Concept-Learning Task J. H. de Swart and E. A. Das-Smaal 32. Selective Attention and the Orienting Response Wouter Hulstijn Part 5: Personality and Individual Differences in the Orienting Reflex 33. The Orienting Reflex as a Personality Correlate J.F. Orlebeke and J. A. Feij 34. Orienting and Defensive Reflexes in the Detection of Deception David C. Raskin 35. The Orienting Reflex in Anxiety and Schizophrenia Malcolm Lader 36. A Comparison of Auditory Behavior in the Premature and Full-Term Infant: The Effects of Intervention Karen G. Dorros, Nathan Brody and Susan Rose 37. Individual Differences in Infant Speech Perception: A Method of Assessment Cynthia L. Miller 38. Habituation and Conditioning of the Orienting Reflex in Intellectually Gifted and Average Children Dana DeBoskey, Ellen Kimmel and H. D. Kimmel 39. Variations of the Orienting Response in Learning-Disabled Children Noel H. Williams and J. P. Das 40. Extroversion Orienting Reaction Habituation Rate and Sensitivity to Visual Stimuli Robert M. Stelmach 41. Sex Differences in Habituation of the Orienting Reflex Karen Castleman, A. F. Brennan and H. D. Kimmel 42. Electrodermal Measures of Arousal in Humans with Cortical or Subcortical Brain Damage Marlene Oscar-Berman and Anders Gade 43. Individual Differences in Orienting Response Magnitude Related to Academic Performance Arthur R. Zeiner 44. Information Content of the Electrodermal Orienting Response Russell A. Lockhart and William Lieberman 45. Differential Drug Action on Electrodermal Orienting Responses as Distinct from Nonspecific Responses and Electrodermal Levels J. H. Gruzelier and J. F. Connolly 46. Applied Research and the Orienting Reflex: A Few Proposals Staffan Hygge. Author Index. Subject Index.
H. D. Kimmel, E. H. van Olst and J. F. Orlebeke