This book provides a concise description of the metabolic pathways by which lipids of animal and plant membranes are formed. The book emphasizes modulation of these pathways by hormones, diet, environmental stress, and other factors. This new edition is extensively revised, containing new material on topics such as lipid-mediated signal transduction and lipid-induced protein translocation. The new edition also features an entirely new chapter on lipids covalently bound to proteins. The book is excellent for all researchers and students interested in membrane lipid metabolism.
A RATIONALE GOVERNING THE REGULATION OF LIPID METABOLISM. Tissue-Specific Distribution of Lipids. The Physiological Significance of Lipid Tissue Specificity. Response of Membrane Lipid Composition to Environmental Perturbation. The Role of Membrane Lipids in Abnormal and Disease States. Recapitulation. FATTY ACID BIOSYNTHESIS. The Pathway. Cellular Location. The Regulatory Enzymes. FATTY ACID MODIFICATION. Fatty Acid Activation. Fatty Acid Elongation. Fatty Acid Desaturation. Metabolism of Cyclopropane Fatty Acids. Conversion of Straight-Chain to Branched-Chain Fatty Acids. Biohydrogenation of Unsaturated Fatty Acids. Fatty Acid Oxidation. Reduction of Fatty Acids to Fatty Alcohols. PHOSPHOLIPIDS. Regulation of the Phosphatidic Acid Pool. Regulation of the Diacylglycerol Pool. De Novo Synthesis of Phosphatidylcholine. De Novo Synthesis of Phosphatidylethanolamine. Phospholipid Interconversion by Exchange of Polar Head Groups. Formation of Phosphatidylethanolamine and Phosphatidylcholine by Enzymatic Modification of Phosphatidylserine. Formation of CDP-Diacylglycerols From Phosphatidic Acid. De Novo Synthesis of Phosphatidylserine, Phosphatidylinositol, Phosphatidylglycerol and Cardiolipin. Metabolism of Polyphosphoinositides. Phosphonolipids. Phospholipids Containing Ether Bonds. Metabolism of Sphingomyelin. Regulatory Function of Lipid-Degrading Enzymes. Turnover of Phospholipid Acyl Groups. Overview of Phospholipid Metabolism in Bacteria. Overview of Phospholipid Metabolism in Animals. Overview of Phospholipid Metabolism in Plants. STEROL METABOLISM. The Mechanisms of Sterol Biosynthesis. Regulation of Cholesterol Biosynthesis. Regulation of Sterol Analog Metabolism. Regulation of Sterol Catabolism. THE REGULATION OF NON-STEROID ISOPRENOID METABOLISM. Chlorophyll. Carotenoids. Lipids of Archaebacteria. THE REGULATION OF GLYCOLIPID METABOLISM. Glycolipid Metabolism in Animals. Glycolipid Metabolism in Plants. LIPIDS COVALENTLY BOUND TO PROTEINS. Fatty Acylated Proteins. Isoprenylated Proteins. Proteins Anchored to the Membranes by a Phosphatidylinositol Glycan. THE SPECIFICITY AND RATES OF INTRACELLULAR LIPID MOVEMENT. The Intracellular Movement of Lipids Via "Membrane Flow". Unimolecular Transport of Lipids. The Maintenance of Membrane Lipid Asymmetry. THE EFFECTS OF EXOGENOUS LIPIDS UPON LIPID METABOLISM. Effects of Exogenous Fatty Acids. Effects of Exogenous Ether Lipids. Effects of Exogenous Sterols. Effects of Exogenous Precursors of Phospholipid Head Groups. THE EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON LIPID METABOLISM. Adaptive Responses to Environmental Stress. Conclusions.