The history of reform movements in postwar Eastern Europe is ultimately ironic, inasmuch as the reformers' successes and defeats alike served to discredit and demoralize the regimes they sought to redeem. The essays in this volume examine the historic and present-day role of the internal critics who, whatever their intentions, used Marxism as critique to demolish Marxism as ideocracy, but did not succeed in replacing it. Included here are essays by James P. Scanlan on the USSR, Ferenc Feher on Hungary, Leslie Holmes on the German Democratic Republic, Raymond Taras on Poland, James Satterwhite on Czechoslovakia, Vladimir Tismaneanu on Romania, Mark Baskin on Bulgaria, and Oskar Gruenwald on Yugoslavia. In concert, the contributors provide a comprehensive intellectual history and a veritable Who's Who of revisionist Marxism in Eastern Europe.
This richly illustrated set is the definitive reference on American immigration from both historic and contemporary perspectives. It traces the scope and sweep of U.S. immigration from the earliest colonial settlements to the present, focusing on critical issues as well as the groups of people involved. The set fully documents and examines every major immigrant group and every era through detailed analysis of social, legal, political, economic, and demographic factors. Archival and contemporary photographs, along with hundreds of pages of documents and illustrations, further illuminate the information provided. Featuring a wealth of data derived from INS records, the U.S. Census, and the Departments of Commerce and Labor, Encyclopedia of American Immigration is divided into four parts: * Part I: History of U.S. Immigration - From colonial times to the present. * Part II: Immigration Issues - Includes laws and policy, politics, economics, labor, demographics, legal vs. illegal, the INS, culture, language, and more. * Part III: The Immigrant Groups by Region of the World * Part IV: Documents in American Immigration - Includes laws, historical census data, and other pertinent documents.