The Science of Water: Concepts and Applications, Third Edition, 3rd Edition (Hardback) book cover

The Science of Water

Concepts and Applications, Third Edition, 3rd Edition

By Frank R. Spellman

CRC Press

550 pages | 163 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2014-09-17
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Description

The Science of Water: Concepts and Applications, Third Edition contains a wealth of scientific information and is based on real-world experience. Building on the second edition, this text applies the latest data and research in the field, and addresses water contamination as a growing problem. The book material covers a wide range of water contaminants, the cause of these contaminants, and considers their impact on surface water and groundwater sources. It highlights the three distinct and separate sources of freshwater: surface water, groundwater, and groundwater under the direct influence of surface water (GUDISW). It discusses the conditions that constitute GUDISW and the Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR). It also explores sustainability and the effect of human use, misuse, and reuse of freshwater and wastewater on the overall water supply.

Provides Valuable Insight for Water/Wastewater Practitioners

Designed to fill a gap in the available material about water, the book examines water reserve utilization and the role of policymakers involved in the decision-making process. The book provides practical knowledge that practitioners and operators must have in order to pass licensure/certification tests and keep up with relevant changes. It also updates all previous chapters, presents numerous example math problems, and provides information not covered in earlier editions.

What’s New in the Third Edition:

  • Includes a new chapter on water economics, as well as a new chapter on water usage
  • Expands the coverage of wastewater stabilization ponds
  • Adds new problems, tables, and figures throughout

The Science of Water: Concepts and Applications, Third Edition serves a varied audience—it can be utilized by water/wastewater practitioners—as well as students, lay personnel, regulators, technical experts, attorneys, business leaders, and concerned citizens.

Reviews

"This book contains a wealth of scientific information. The text addresses water contamination as a growing problem, including the cause of the contaminants and their impact on surface water and groundwater sources. It highlights three distinct sources of freshwater: surface water, groundwater, and groundwater under the direct influence of surface water. It discusses the conditions that constitute GUDISW and the surface water treatment rule. It also explores sustainability and the effect of human use, misuse, and reuse of freshwater and wastewater on the overall water supply."

—Journal of the American Water Resources Association

"The third updated edition of The Science of Water: Concepts and Applications belongs in any serious college-level or engineering library covering water science and technology, and packs in scientific information blending with real-world water management and science. It updates the second edition by offering the latest revised data and research, considers the growing problem of water contamination, examines sources of freshwater and accompanying issues of sustainability, and considers the impact of human use habits on freshwater and wastewater. From how policy makers influence water use and distribution to the science of water management and stabilization ponds, this weighty coverage is replete with the tables and formulas professionals need to understand the concepts and applications of water science in the field, making it a pick for any involved in water or wastewater management."

—Midwest Book Review

"This is a book very useful to everyone involved in water treatment. It provides information ranging from water treatment to water source management to managing water rates. If a bench chemist wants to know what people in the management section are thinking about for setting water rates, this is the go-to book. If a manager with a business background comes from outside the water treatment field, the economic section of the book will be useful for getting up to speed. Likewise, anyone in non-scientific fields will get an excellent overview of the technologies of water treatment and source water monitoring without excessive technical jargon, equations, and chemical symbols."

—Adam Eyring, Philadelphia Water Department, Pennsylvania, USA

"Mr. Spellman is to be commended for pulling together a vast amount of water-related material from diversified sources such that this book can be the first (and in some cases, last) book to turn to for information on water."

—Windsor Sung, Ph.D, PE, Water Quality Expert, USA

Table of Contents

Introduction

Still Water

Setting the Stage

Historical Perspective

Thought-Provoking Questions

References and Recommended Reading

All about Water

How Special, Strange, and Different Is Water?

Characteristics of Water

Somewhere between 0° and 105°

Physical Properties of Water

Capillary Action

Water Cycle

Specific Water Movements

Q and Q Factors

Sources of Water

Watershed Protection

Potable Water

Key Definitions

Surface Water

Groundwater

Well Systems

Water Use

Water Content of Crops, Goods, Beverages, Animals, and Industrial Products

Thought-Provoking Question

References and Recommended Reading

Water Hydraulics

Terminology

What Is Water Hydraulics?

Water Balance

Basic Concepts

Density and Specific Gravity

Effects of Water under Pressure

Head

Flow/Discharge Rate: Water in Motion

Piezometric Surface and Bernoulli’s Theorem

Hydraulic Machines (Pumps)

Friction Head Loss

Basic Pumping Hydraulics

Open-Channel Flow

Flow Measurement

Thought-Provoking Questions

References and Recommended Reading

Water Chemistry

Chemistry Concepts and Definitions

Chemistry Fundamentals

Water Solutions

Water Constituents

Optical Phenomena: Water and Light

Common Water Measurements

Water Treatment Chemicals

Chemical Drinking Water Parameters

Thought-Provoking Question

References and Recommended Reading

Water Biology

Biology and Microbiology: What Are They?

Water Microorganisms

Cells

Bacteria

Protozoa

Microscopic Crustaceans

Viruses

Algae

Fungi

Microbiological Processes

Thought-Provoking Questions

References and Recommended Reading

Water Ecology

Setting the Stage

Levels of Organization

Ecosystems

Biogeochemical Cycles

Energy Flow in the Ecosystem

Food Chain Efficiency

Productivity

Population Ecology

Stream Genesis and Structure

An Overview of Benthic Life

Benthic Macroinvertebrates

Insect Macroinvertebrates

Non-Insect Macroinvertebrates

Thought-Provoking Questions

References and Recommended Reading

Water Pollution

Sources of Contaminants

Radionuclides

Chemical Cocktail

Groundwater Contamination

Self-Purification of Streams

Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations

Water Supply, Use, and Wastewater Treatment

Thought-Provoking Question

References and Recommended Reading

Environmental Biomonitoring, Sampling, and Testing

What Is Biomonitoring?

Biotic Index in Streams

Biological Sampling in Streams

Macroinvertebrate Sampling in Rocky-Bottom Streams

Macroinvertebrate Sampling in Muddy-Bottom Streams

Post-Sampling Routine

Sampling Devices

Drinking Water Quality Monitoring

Test Methods

Thought-Provoking Questions

References and Recommended Reading

Water Economics

Introduction

Microeconomic Concepts

Macroeconomic Concepts

Thought-Provoking Questions

References and Recommended Reading

Water Use and Availability

Off-Stream Water Use

Value of Water Use

Off-Stream Water Use by Agriculture

Off-Stream Water Use by Manufacturing

Off-Stream Water Use by Mining and Energy Resource Extraction

Off-Stream and In-Stream Water Use for Electric Power Generation

In-Stream Water Use by Commercial Fishing

In-Stream Water Use by Commercial Navigation

In-Stream Water Use by Recreation and Tourism

Non-Market Value Estimates for Water-Based Recreational Activities

Thought-Provoking Questions

References and Recommended Reading

Water Treatment

Introduction

Conventional Water Treatment

Stages of Water Treatment

Thought-Provoking Questions

References and Recommended Reading

Water Treatment Calculations

Introduction

Water Source and Storage Calculations

Coagulation, Mixing, and Flocculation Calculations

Determining Percent Strength of Solutions

Sedimentation Calculations

Water Filtration Calculations

Water Chlorination Calculations

Chemical Use Calculations

Chlorination Chemistry

References and Recommended Reading

Glossary

Index

About the Author

Frank R. Spellman, PhD, is a retired assistant professor of environmental health at Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia. The author of more than 90 books covering topics ranging from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) to all areas of environmental science and occupational health, he has been cited in more than 450 publications, and is a co-author to well-recognized experts in various scientific fields. For example, he is a contributing author of The Engineering Handbook, 2nd ed. Spellman holds a BA in public administration, a BS in business management, an MBA, and both an MS and a PhD in environmental engineering.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
TEC010030
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Environmental / Water Supply