The Social Psychology of Science  book cover
1st Edition

The Social Psychology of Science



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ISBN 9780898620214
Published January 18, 1994 by Guilford Press
432 Pages

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Book Description

The social psychology of science is a compelling new area of study whose shape is still emerging. This erudite and innovative book outlines a theoretical and methodological agenda for this new field, and bridges the gap between the individually focused aspects of psychology and the sociological elements of science studies. Presenting a side of social psychology that, until now, has received almost no attention in the social sciences literature, this volume offers the first detailed and comprehensive study of the social psychology of science, complete with a large number of empirical and theoretical examples.
The volume's introductory section provides a detailed analysis of how modern social psychology might apply to the study of science. Chapters show how to analyze science in terms of social cognition, attribution theory, attitudes and attitude change, social motivation, social influence and social conformity, and intergroup relations, weaving extensive illustrations from the science studies literature into the theoretical analysis. The nature and role of experimentation are discussed, as are metaanalytic methods for summarizing the results of multiple studies. Ways to facilitate the generalization of causal inferences from experimental work are also examined.

The book focuses on such topics as interactions among small groups of scientists, and the impact of social motivation, influence, and conformity on scientific work. Also covered are scientists' responses to ethical issues in research, differences in cognitive style distribution, creativity in research and development, and the sociologists's view of the social psychology of science and technology. In addition, the book provides two annotated bibliographies, one on the philosophy of science and the other on social psychology, to guide readers in both disciplines to salient recent works.

Valuable to the entire science studies community, this text will be of special interest to philosophers, sociologists, psychologists, and historians of science interested in the nature of knowledge development in science. Because of its novel application of social psychological theories and methods, this book will be useful as a primary text or a secondary text in courses on science studies in psychology, sociology, or philosophy departments.

Table of Contents

Preface.
Contributors.
I. INTRODUCTION, BACKGROUND, AND OVERVIEW.
1. Social Psychology of Science: A Conceptual and Research Program, Shadish, Fuller, Gorman, Amabile, Kruglanski, Rosenthal, and Rosenwein.
2. The Social Psychology of Scientific Validity: An Epistemological Perspective and a Personalized History, Campbell.
3. The Social Psychology of Scientific Knowledge: Another Strong Programme, Fuller.
II. SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRIBUTIONS TO SCIENCE STUDIES.
4. Toward an Experimental Social Psychology of Science: Preliminary Results and Reflexive Observations, Gorman.
5. The Social-Cognitive Bases of Scientific Knowledge, Kruglanski.
6. On Being One's Own Case Study: Experimenter Effects in Behavioral Research - 30 Years Later, Rosenthal.
7. Meta-analysis and Some Science-Compromising Problems of Social Psychology, Miller and Pollock.
8. Social Influence in Science: Agreement and Dissent in Achieving Scientific Consensus, Rosenwein.
9. Scientists' Responses to Ethical Issues in Research, Sieber.
10. Characterizing Niches and Strata in Science by Tracing Differences in Cognitive Styles Distribution, Wilkes.
11. The Atmosphere of Pure Work: Creativity in Research and Development, Amabile.
12. Thinking by Groups, Organizations and Networks: A Sociologist's View of the Social Psychology of Science and Technology, Westrum.
III. DISCUSSION.
13. Making Scientific Knowledge a Social Psychological Problem, Turner.
14. On the Social Psychology of Science, Tweney.
15. Social Psychology and Science Studies: More Commonality of Purpose than Metatheory, Cook.
16. Editor's Epilogue: Some Reflections, Shadish and Fuller.
IV. FOR FURTHER READING.
17. A Guide to the Philosophy and Sociology of Science for Social Psychology of Science, Fuller.
18. Social Psychology Readings Relevant to Science: An Annotated Reading List, Kruglanski.
19. Social Psychology and Science Studies, Lawless.
Author Index.
Subject Index.

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Editor(s)

Biography

William R. Shadish, PhD, Memphis State University
Steve Fuller, PhD, University of Pittsburgh.