For a long time, various different lobbying sectors have claimed that the use of video technology is an effective aid in decision-making. Now the IFAB has taken a historic step in the approval of experiments on the use of video to provide support to football refereeing.
The Use of Video Technologies in Refereeing Football and Other Sports analyses the capacity of audio-visual technology from different perspectives to help understand the best implementation of the Video Assistant Referee (VAR) system in football and, more generally, in other sports. This book addresses in-depth interdisciplinary viewpoints on the need and the opportunity of the implementation procedures regarding how to use it, considering that it could lead to very important changes.
The book goes on to examine various approaches to the most interesting topics for players, amateurs, coaches, referees and referees coaches. Offering viewpoints from both academics and professionals, this new volume addresses the VAR issue in a multidisciplinary way, analysing the implications of video replay application in football from the perspective of players, coaches, television professionals, referees, amateurs, sports lawyers, media and educators.
Table of Contents
Part 1: The Need for Video Assisted in Football
1. Between Scepticism and the longed-awaited quest for "Football Justice"
Juan Antonio Simón
2. The Contribution of VARs to Fairness in Sport
Juan De Dios Crespo
Part 2: Video Broadcasting Limitations
3. Is it the same for the TV Screen and for the VAR? Planning the Use of Cameras and Replays to Solve the Controversy
Anto J. Benítez
4. The Interaction Between Audio and the Video Assistant Referee in Football
Manuel Sánchez Cid and Alberto Luis García-García
5. Replays in Football: A Technical Resource that Serves as a Narrative and Post-Refereeing System
Alberto L. García-García and Manuel Sánchez Cid
Part 3: Video Assisted Officiating in Other Sports
6. Instant Replay in The Spanish Basketball League: ACB
Ángel M. López
7. Instant Replay System in the National Basketball Association
Jacob K. Tingle
8. Video Technology for refereeing in other sports: Tennis and Rugby
Anto J. Benítez, Esteban Stepanian, and Ángel M. López
9. Instant Replay in the National Football League
Jacob K. Tingle and Manuel ArmenterosPart 4: Experiments with Video Assistant Referees
10. The Video Assistant Referee (VAR) Protocol
11. VAR Experiments in International Matches
12. VAR experiments in the Bundesliga
13. VAR experiments in the Italian SERIE A League
Juan Antonio Simón
14. VAR in the Major League Soccer (MLS)
15. How Twitter has portrayed the VAR
Part 5: New Challenges in the Refereeing Performance
16. Educating International Football Referees: The importance of Uniformity
Manuel Armenteros and Tom Webb
17. Didactic Teaching Strategies for the VAR. An Approach to Gamification and 21st-century Skills
Marta Fernández, Miguel Ángel Betancor, and Manuel Armenteros
18. Psychological response of the referee to the introduction of VAR
Ricardo de la Vega and Juan Pedro Fuentes
Manuel Armenteros is a visiting professor at the Carlos III University of Madrid. For over 10 years, he coordinated the training project between the FIFA Refereeing Department and the Carlos III University, Madrid, designing and implementing new technologies for referees and technical instructors. He is also a technology consultant and regularly collaborates with FIFA, UEFA, AFC and IFAB on a variety of projects.
Anto J. Benítez holds a degree in Information Science and a PhD in Audiovisual Communication from the Complutense University of Madrid. His thesis was titled “Espectáculo futbolístico y comunicación televisiva”. Main lines of his research have to do with sports and media, new technologies of audio-visual production and its application in education. He is the author of the sole original volume in Spanish about producing and directing sports for television. He has been a television director for more than 15 years, some of which he was in charge of sports and broadcasting in Telemadrid. Thanks to that, he has planned and directed a huge number of sports events, especially in La Liga and La Liga 2. As an athlete, he competed at the highest level for 17 years in different rugby teams in Spanish Leagues.
Miguel Ángel Betancor is a professor of Theory and History of Education at the University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria. He received his PhD in Psychopedagogy from the University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria in 1988. He is the director of the Center for Studies on Sports Arbitration at the University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria. He was also the coordinator of the online training project between FIFA and FIBA Europe and the University Las Palmas de Gran Canaria from 2000 to 2010, and the head of operations at FIBA Europe, where he worked on the design of the digital basketball record. He also introduced technology in referee training, providing an online platform to referees and instructions from 51 countries. Nowadays, he is the head of the European project “Erasmus PLUS SPORT”, a new model of sociohealthy volunteering. He is also the head of the regional project “eSport Talent Canarias”, which is aimed at the development of electronic sports and its recognition in the Sports Law and Gamification Life.