The Use of Video Technologies in Refereeing Football and Other Sports: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

The Use of Video Technologies in Refereeing Football and Other Sports

1st Edition

Edited by Manuel Armenteros, Antonio J. Benitez, Miguel Ángel Betancor


384 pages | 8 B/W Illus.

Purchasing Options:$ = USD
Hardback: 9781138312043
pub: 2019-09-30
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The IFAB took a historic step in the approval of experiments on the use of video in order to provide support to football refereeing. For a long time, various different lobbying sectors had claimed this technology as an effective aid in decision making.

The Use of Video Technologies in Refereeing Football and Other Sports analyses the capacity of audio-visual technology from different perspectives to help understand the best implementation of the Video Assistant Referee (VAR) system in football and, more generally, in other sports. This book addresses in depth interdisciplinary viewpoints on the need and the opportunity of the implementation procedures regarding how to use it, considering that it could lead to very important changes.

The Use of Video Technologies in Refereeing Football and Other Sports goes on to examine various approaches to most interesting topics for players, amateurs, coaches, referees and referees coaches. Offering viewpoints from both academics and professionals, this new volume addresses the VAR issue in a multidisciplinary way, analysing the implications of video replay application in football from the perspective of players, coaches, television professionals, referees, amateurs, sports lawyers, media and educators.

Table of Contents

Part 1: The Need for Video Assisted in Football

1. Between Scepticism and the longed-awaited quest for "Football Justice"

Juan Antonio Simón

2. The Contribution of VARs to Fairness in Sport

Juan De Dios Crespo

Part 2: Video Broadcasting Limitations

3. Is it the same for the TV Screen and for the VAR? Planning the Use of Cameras and Replays to Solve the Controversy

Anto J. Benítez

4. The Interaction Between Audio and the Video Assistant Referee in Football

Manuel Sánchez Cid and Alberto Luis García-García

5. Replays in Football: A Technical Resource that Serves as a Narrative and Post-Refereeing System

Alberto L. García-García

Part 3: Video Assisted Officiating in Other Sports

6. Instant Replays in The Spanish Basketball League: ACB

Ángel M. López

7. Instant Replay System in the National Basketball Association

Jacob Tingle

8. Video Technology for refereeing in other sports: Tennis and Rugby

Anto J. Benítez, Esteban Stepanian, and Ángel M. López

9. Instant Replay in the National Football League

Jacob Tingle

Part 4: Experiments with Video Assistant Referees

10. The Video Assistant Referee (VAR) Protocol

Carlos Bacigalupe

11. VAR Experiments in International Matches

Manuel Armenteros

12. VAR experiments in the Bundesliga

Otto Kolbinger

13. VAR experiments in the Italian SERIE A League

Juan Antonio Simón

14. VAR in the Major League Soccer (MLS)

Clinton Warren

15. How Twitter has portrayed the VAR

Raquel Gallego

Part 5: New Challenges in the Refereeing Performance

16. Educating International Football Referees: The importance of Uniformity

Manuel Armenteros and Tom Webb

17. Didactic Teaching Strategies for the VAR. An Approach to Gamification and 21st-century Skills

Marta Fernández, Miguel Ángel Betancor, and Manuel Armenteros

18. Psychological response of the referee to the introduction of VAR

Ricardo de la Vega

About the Editors

Manuel Armenteros Gallardo was a visiting professor at Carlos III University of Madrid. For a decade, he worked as a coordinator at this university. He worked in the project with new technologies and this project is applied to referees and technical instructors training between FIFA refereeing department and Carlos III University of Madrid. Manuel Armenteros is also a collaborator of FIFA, UEFA, AFC and IFAB.

Miguel Ángel Betancor is a professor of Theory and History of Education at the University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria. He held a Ph.D. in Psychopedagogy at the University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria in 1988. He is also the director of the Center for Studies on Sports Arbitration at the University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria. He was also the coordinator of the online training project between FIFA and FIBA Europe and the University Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, from 2000 to 2010. He was the head of operations at FIBA Europe where he worked on the design of the digital basketball record. He also introduced technology in referee training, providing an online platform to referees and instructions from 51 countries.

Nowadays, he is the head of the European project "Erasmus PLUS SPORT". This is a new model of socio-healthy volunteering. He is also the head of the regional project "eSport Talent Canarias", that is aimed at the development of electronic sports and its recognition in the Sports Law and Gamification Life.

Anto Benítez held a degree in Information Science and a Ph.D. in Audiovisual Communication at the Complutense University of Madrid. His thesis was titled "Espectáculo futbolístico y comunicación televisiva". Main lines of his research have to do with sports and media, new technologies of audiovisual production and its application in education. He is the author of the sole original volume in Spanish about producing and directing sports for television. He has been a television director for more than fifteen years, some of those he was in charge of sports and broadcasting in Telemadrid. Thanks to that, he has planned and directed a huge number of sports events, specially in LaLiga and LaLiga2. As an athlete, he competed at the highest level for seventeen years in different rugby teams in Spanish Leagues.

About the Series

Routledge Research in Sports Technology and Engineering

The Routledge Research in Sports Technology and Engineering series showcases cutting-edge research from this increasingly significant discipline. Featuring the work of established and emerging scientists and practitioners from around the world, this series is an important channel for new and ground-breaking research in technology and engineering for sport.

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Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SPORTS & RECREATION / Coaching / Soccer
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Telecommunications