The World Trade Organization  book cover
1st Edition

The World Trade Organization

ISBN 9780415364225
Published June 27, 2014 by Routledge
2149 Pages

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Book Description

With a membership of 160 countries, the World Trade Organization (WTO) is the international organization with responsibility for the global rules of trade between nations. Its stated principal function is to ensure that trade flows as smoothly, predictably, and freely as possible. Established almost twenty years ago, the agreements negotiated under its auspices and, indeed, its very existence have been the source of tremendous controversy and debate.

Edited by a leading scholar in the field, and former Director of the Appellate Body Secretariat of the WTO, this new Routledge collection brings together in five volumes the very best scholarship on the WTO from economists, academics, lawyers, and other thinkers to examine its history (including its origins in the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade). The set also makes available cutting-edge research about the fundamental principles on which the organization is based and explores the implications of the WTO’s policy and practice for domestic regulation and the sovereignty of individual states. The final two volumes examine the role of the WTO in dispute settlement and discuss the challenges for the future, including relating to the role of developing countries, preferential trade agreements as well as the legitimacy and governance of the organization.

With an introduction, newly written by the editor, providing her own unique perspective, World Trade Organization is an essential collection destined to be valued by scholars, students, government officials, and practitioners as a vital research resource.

Table of Contents

Volume 1: The Origins and Mandate of the WTO

1.1 History: From the GATT to the WTO

1. Demaret, Paul, "The Metamorphoses of the GATT: From the Havana Charter to the World Trade Organization" (1996) 34 Columbia Journal of Transnational Law 123-71.

2. Gardner, Richard N., "The Bretton Woods-GATT System after Sixty-Five Years: A Balance Sheet of Success and Failure" (2008) 47(1) Columbia Journal of Transnational Law 31-71.

1.2 The Role of Developing Countries: Past and Present

3. Finger, J. Michael, "Developing Countries in the WTO System: Applying Robert Hudec’s Analysis to the Doha Round" (2008) 31(7) The World Economy 887-904.

4. Ford, Jane, "A Social Theory of Trade Regime Change: GATT to WTO" (2002) 4(3) International Studies Review 115-38.

1.3 The WTO as a Contract: Negotiations and Bargaining

5. Pauwelyn, Joost, "The Transformation of World Trade" (2005) 104(1) Michigan Law Review 1-65.

6. Steinberg, Richard H., "In the Shadow of Law or Power? Consensus-Based Bargaining and Outcomes in the GATT/WTO" (2002) 56(2) International Organization 339-74.

1.4 The WTO as an Organization: Institutional Issues

7. Jackson, John H., "The Evolution of the World Trading System – The Legal and Institutional Context" in Daniel Bethlehem et al, eds, The Oxford Handbook of International Trade Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009) 30-53.

8. Kuijper, Pieter Jan, "WTO Institutional Aspects" in Daniel Bethlehem et al, eds, The Oxford Handbook of International Trade Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009) 79-128.

9. Steger, Debra P., "The World Trade Organization: A New Constitution for the World Trading System" in Marco Bronckers & Reinhard Quick, eds, New Directions in International Economic Law: Essays in Honour of John H. Jackson (Kluwer International: The Hague 2000) 135-53.

1.5 The Future Mandate of the WTO

10. Baldwin, Robert E., "Key Challenges Facing the WTO" in Mike Moore, ed, Doha and Beyond: The Future of the Multilateral Trading System (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004) 46-67.

11. Charnovitz, Steve, "Triangulating the World Trade Organization" (2002) 96(1) American Journal of International Law 28-55.

12. Steger, Debra P., "The Culture of the WTO: Why It Needs to Change" (2007) 10(3) Journal of International Economic Law 483-495.

Volume 2: The Fundamental Principles

2.1 Overview: Theory and Analysis

13. Bagwell, Kyle & Robert W. Staiger, "The World Trade Organization: Theory and Practice" (2010) 2 Annual Review of Economics 223-56.

14. Regan, Donald H., "What Are Trade Agreements For? Two Conflicting Stories Told By Economists, with a Lesson for Lawyers" (2006) 9(4) Journal of International Economic Law 951-88.

15. Subramanian, Arvind & Shang-Jin Wei, "The WTO Promotes Trade, Strongly But Unevenly" (2007) 72(1) Journal of International Economics 151-75.

2.2 Like Products

16. Choi, Won Mog, "Overcoming the ‘Aim and Effect’ Theory: Interpretation of the ‘Like Product’ in GATT Article III" (2002) 8 UC Davis Journal of International Law & Policy 107-31.

17. Hudec, Robert E., "GATT/WTO Constraints on National Regulation: Requiem for an ‘Aims and Effects’ Test" (1998) 32 International Lawyer 619-49.

2.3 Non-Discrimination: Most-Favored Nation (MFN)

18. Davey, William J. & Joost Pauwelyn, "MFN Unconditionality: A Legal Analysis of the Concept in View of its Evolution in the GATT/WTO Jurisprudence with Particular Reference to the Issue of ‘Like Product’ " in Thomas Cottier, Petros C. Mavroidis & Patrick Blatter, eds, Regulatory Barriers and the Principle of Non-discrimination in World Trade Law: Past, Present and Future (Michigan: University of Michigan Press, 2000) 13-50.

19. Horn, Henrik & Petros C. Mavroidis, "Economic and Legal Aspects of the Most-Favored-Nation Clause" (2001) 17 European Journal of Political Economy 233 –79.

20. Hudec, Robert E, "Tiger, Tiger in the House: A Critical Appraisal of the Case against Discriminatory Trade Measures" in Ernst-Ulrich Petersmann & Meinhard Hilf, eds, The New GATT Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations: Legal and Economic Problems (Deventer: Kluwer Law and Taxation Publisher, 1991) 165-212.

2.4 Non-Discrimination: National Treatment

21. Horn, Henrik, "National Treatment in the GATT" (2006) 96(1) American Economic Review 394-404.

22. Staiger, Robert W. & Alan O. Sykes, "International Trade, National Treatment, and Domestic Regulation" (2011) 40(1) Journal of Legal Studies 149-203.

Volume 3: Implications for Domestic Regulation

3.1 Regulatory Purpose

23. Du, Michael Ming, "The Rise of National Regulatory Autonomy in the GATT/WTO Regime" (2011) 14(3) Journal of International Economic Law 639-75.  

3.2 The WTO as a contract or a community: implications for the rules

24. Cho, Sungjoon, "Beyond Rationality: A Sociological Construction of the World Trade Organization" (2012) 52(2) Virginia Journal of International Law 321-54.

25. Shaffer, Gregory & Joel Trachtman, "Interpretation and Institutional Choice at the WTO" (2011) 52(1) Virginia Journal of International Law 103-53.

3.3 Standards: SPS and TBT

26. Howse, Robert, "Democracy, Science, and Free Trade: Risk Regulation on Trial at the World Trade Organization" (2000) 98(7) Michigan Law Review 2329-57.

27. Lang, Andrew & Joanne Scott, "The Hidden World of WTO Governance" (2009) 20(3) European Journal of International Law 575-614.

3.4 "Trade and …": environment, investment, competition

28. Charnovitz, Steve, "The WTO's Environmental Progress" (2007) 10(3) Journal of International Economic Law 685-706.

29. Lang, Andrew T. F., "Reflecting on 'Linkage': Cognitive and Institutional Change in the International Trading System" (2007) 70(4) Modern Law Review 523-549.

3.5 Regulatory Autonomy for Developing Countries

30. Hoekman, Bernard, "Operationalizing the Concept of Policy Space in the WTO: Beyond Special and Differential Treatment" (2005) 8(2) Journal of International Economic Law 405-24.

31. Santos, Alvaro, "Carving Out Policy Autonomy for Developing Countries in the World Trade Organization: The Experience of Brazil & Mexico" (2012) 52(3) Virginia Journal of International Law 551-632.

Volume 4: Dispute Settlement

4.1. Overview

32. Jackson, John H., "The Case of the World Trade Organization" (2008) 84(3) International Affairs 437-54.

33. Lacarte-Muro, Julio & Fernando Piérola Castro, "Comparing the WTO and GATT Dispute Settlement Mechanisms: What Was Accomplished in the Uruguay Round?" in Julio Lacarte & Jaime Granados, eds, Inter-Governmental Trade Dispute Settlement: Multilateral and Regional Approaches (London: Cameron May, 2004) 31-60.

4.2 Analysis

34. Bernauer, Thomas, Manfred Elsig & Joost Pauwelyn, "Dispute Settlement Mechanism: Analysis and Problems" in Amrita Narlikar, Martin Daunton & Robert M. Stern, eds Oxford Handbook on the World Trade Organization (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012) 485-506.

35. Davey, William J., "The WTO Dispute Settlement System: The First Ten Years" (2005) 8(1) Journal of International Economic Law 17-50.

36. Porges, Amelia, "Settling WTO Disputes: What Do Litigation Models Tell Us?" (2003) 19(1) Ohio State Journal on Dispute Resolution 141-84.

4.3 The Panel Process

37. Davey, William J., "Expediting the Panel Process in WTO Dispute Settlement" in Merit E. Janow, Victoria Donaldson & Alan Yanovich, eds, The WTO: Governance, Dispute Settlement & Developing Countries (Huntington, NY: Juris Publishing, 2008) 409-40.

4.4 The Appellate Body

38. Ehlermann, Claus-Dieter, "Reflections on the Appellate Body of the WTO" (2003) 6(3) Journal of International Economic Law 695-708.

39. Van den Bossche, Peter, "From Afterthought to Centrepiece: The WTO Appellate Body and its Rise to Prominence in the World Trading System" in Giorgio Sacerdoti, Alan Yanovich & Jan Bohanes, eds, The WTO at Ten: The Contribution of the Dispute Settlement System (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006) 289-325.

4.5 Compliance and Remedies

40. Bronckers, Marco & Naboth van den Broek, "Financial Compensation in the WTO: Improving the Remedies of WTO Dispute Settlement" (2005) 8(1) Journal of International Economic Law 101-26.

41. Davey, William J., "Compliance Problems in WTO Dispute Settlement" (2009) 42(1) Cornell International Law Journal 119-28.

42. Jackson, John H., "International Law Status of WTO Dispute Settlement Reports: Obligation to Comply or Option to ‘Buy Out’?" (2004) 98(1) American Journal of International Law 109-25.

43. Schwartz, Warren F. & Alan O. Sykes, "The Economic Structure of Renegotiation and Dispute Resolution in the World Trade Organization" (2002) 31(1-2) Journal of Legal Studies S179-204.

44. Trachtman, Joel P., "The WTO Cathedral" (2007) 43 Stanford Journal of International Law 127-67.

4.6 Reflections on International Law, Justice, Legitimacy and the Rule of Law

45. Alvarez, José E., "The Factors Driving and Constraining the Incorporation of International Law in WTO" in Merit E. Janow, Victoria Donaldson, Alan Yanovich, eds, The WTO: Governance, Dispute Settlement & Developing Countries (Huntington, NY: Juris Publishing, 2008) 611-34.

46. Petersmann, Ernst-Ulrich, "Multilevel Judicial Governance of International Trade Requires A Common Conception of Rule of Law and Justice" (2007) 10(3) Journal of International Economic Law 529-51.

47. Weiler, J.H.H., "The Rule of Lawyers and the Ethos of Diplomats: Reflections on the Internal and External Legitimacy of WTO Dispute Settlement" (2001) 35(2) Journal of World Trade 191-207.

4.7 The Future

48. McRae, Donald, "What is the Future of WTO Dispute Settlement?" (2004) 7(1) Journal of International Economic Law 3-21.  

Volume 5: The Future of the WTO

5.1 The Challenges and Solutions

49. Krueger, Anne O., "The Clash between Economics and Politics in the World Trade Organization" (2009) 3(1) Journal of International Trade and Diplomacy 33-62.

50. Mattoo, Aaditya & Arvind Subramanian, Multilateralism Beyond Doha, Working Paper No WP08-8, Peterson Institute for International Economics (PIIE) (2008), online PIIE <>.

51. Pauwelyn, Joost, "New Trade Politics for the 21st Century" (2008) 11(3) Journal of International Economic Law 559-73.

52. Sutherland, Peter D., "Leadership and Vision: Some Lessons from the Uruguay Round" in Merit E. Janow, Victoria Donaldson & Alan Yanovich, eds, The WTO: Governance, Dispute Settlement & Developing Countries (Huntington, NY: Juris Publishing, 2008) 49-62.

5.2 Proposals for Reform

53. Cottier, Thomas, "Preparing for Structural Reform in the WTO" (2007) 10(3) Journal of International Economic Law 497-508.

54. Ehlermann, Claus-Dieter & Lothar Ehring, "Decision-Making in the World Trade Organization: Is the Consensus Practice of the World Trade Organization Adequate for Making, Revising and Implementing Rules on International Trade?" (2005) 8(1) Journal of International Economic Law 51-75.

55. Hoekman, Bernard, "Proposals for WTO Reform: A Synthesis and Assessment" (2011) 20 Minnesota Journal of International Law 324-64.

56. Ostry, Sylvia, "The World Trading System: In Dire Need of Reform" (2003) 17(1) Temple International & Comparative Law Journal 109-24.

57. Steger, Debra P., "The Future of the WTO: The Case for Institutional Reform" (2009) 12(4) Journal of International Economic Law 803-33.

5.3 Changing Governance: Emerging Powers and Developing Countries

58. Ismail, Faizel, "Reforming the World Trade Organization" (2009) 10(4) World Economics 109-46. 

59. Narlikar, Amrita, "New Powers in the Club: The Challenges of Global Trade Governance" (2010) 86(3) International Affairs 717-28.

60. Osakwe, Chiedu, "Developing Countries and GATT/WTO Rules: Dynamic Transformations in Trade Policy Behavior and Performance" (2011) 20(2) Minnesota Journal of International Law 365-436.

5.4 Multilateralising Regionalism

61. Baldwin, Richard E., "Multilateralising Regionalism: Spaghetti Bowls as Building Blocs on the Path to Global Free Trade" (2006) 29(11) World Economy 1451-1518.

5.5 The WTO and Legitimacy

62. Singh, Rahul, "The World Trade Organization and Legitimacy: Evolving a Framework for Bridging the Democratic Deficit" (2008) 42(2) Journal of World Trade 347-65.

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