Threat Assessment and Management Strategies : Identifying the Howlers and Hunters, Second Edition book cover
2nd Edition

Threat Assessment and Management Strategies
Identifying the Howlers and Hunters, Second Edition

ISBN 9781498721844
Published February 25, 2016 by Routledge
259 Pages 6 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

The field of threat assessment and the research surrounding it have exploded since the first edition of Threat Assessment and Management Strategies: Identifying the Howlers and Hunters. To reflect those changes, this second edition contains more than 100 new pages of material, including several new chapters, charts, and illustrations, as well as updated cases.

The book has been reorganized into two parts. The first part offers the authors’ current thinking on how to conduct practical and effective threat management processes. The second provides an in-depth analysis of how howlers and hunters behave and how understanding those behaviors can be used to manage each type of problem individual.

This new edition draws on the latest research, as well as ideas and concepts from the authors’ previous books. It integrates the sum of their careers in threat management—both their individual experiences managing problem situations and their research and writing on the topic—into a single volume. As in each of their previous books, it focuses on operationally effective and practical methods for managing problem situations.

This book also covers special issues in threat management, exploring the relationship between the law and the intimacy effect as well as different ways to identify, assess, and manage howlers and hunters. Each chapter concludes with a real-life situation analysis relevant to the subject under focus.

Drawing upon the latest research and on the previous work of its authors, Threat Assessment and Management Strategies, Second Edition provides a complete guide to setting up successful threat management processes. It approaches the presented strategies as guidelines rather than prescriptions, emphasizing that threat managers must use their intelligence and originality to modify strategies as necessary to suit each situation.

Table of Contents


Establishing Threat Management Processes
Recognize the Need for Threat Management Processes
Assign Responsibility to Manage Inappropriate Situations to Trained Threat Managers
Provide Training and Liaison with Potential Targets and Administrative Staff
Create an Incident Tracking System with Well-Documented Files
Establish Liaison with Other Agencies, Neighboring Organizations, and Institutions with Shared Interests
Conduct Thorough Fact Finding
Use Consistent and Valid Threat Assessment Methods
Apply Threat Management Strategies Flexibly and Intelligently
Communicate with Potential Targets Professionally, Confidently, and Competently
Manage Inappropriate Situations Appropriately
Situation Analysis: When Physical Protection Fails

Identifying Problem Individuals
Understanding Violence
Identifying Problem Individuals
Protective Fact Finding Compared with Criminal Investigations
Conducting Protective Fact Finding
Using the Need to Knows
Interviewing the Subject
Situation Analysis: A Tragic Winters Tale

Assessing Problem Individuals
Formalized Threat Assessment Approaches
Situation Analysis: The Disgruntled Vet

Managing Problem Individuals
Threat Management Rules of Conduct
Take No Further Action at This Time
Watch and Wait
Third-Party Control or Monitoring
Subject Interviews: Refocus or Assist
Subject Interview: Warning or Confront
Civil Orders
Administrative Actions
Mental Health Commitments
Criminal Prosecutions
Managing the Risk
Situation Analysis: A Loser’s Shot at "Redemption"


Introducing Hunters versus Howlers
Balancing Physical Security and Threat Management
Who Needs Managing?
Purpose of Part 2: Identifying Howlers and Hunters
Situation Analysis: The Poacher

Defining Hunters and Howlers
Hunters Defined and Exemplified
Howlers Defined and Exemplified
Hunters versus Howlers
Situation Analysis: The Payoff

Understanding Hunters
What Hunters Do
The Undetectable
Situation Analysis: The Nonaccidental Tourist

Understanding Howlers
Howler Categories
What Howlers Want
Situation Analysis: The Snitch

Working with the Intimacy Effect and the Law
Working with the Intimacy Effect
Applying Federal Law
Working with State and Local Laws on Threats and Domestic Violence
State Stalking Laws
Situation Analysis: A Mother’s Help

Working with the Hunter, Howler, and Other Concepts
Working with the Last Straw Syndrome
Other Concepts Influencing the Threat Management Process
Managing Hunters and Howlers
10 Guidelines for Managing Hunters and Howlers
Situation Analysis: The Relentless Pursuer

Appendix: When Should Threats Be Seen As Indicative of Future Violence? Threats, Intended Violence, and the Intimacy Effect

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Frederick S. Calhoun, PhD, oversaw a national workplace violence prevention program for a large federal agency. He earned his PhD from the University of Chicago. He was the lead researcher and principal architect in developing the threat assessment process used by the United States Marshals Service for analyzing risks to federal judicial officials. He also developed the service’s policies and procedures for conducting protective investigations and wrote the curriculum and led the training of deputy US Marshals Service threat investigators and their supervisors. He is the author of 12 books and teaches a periodic two-day seminar, "Managing Threats: Reducing the Risk of Violence," designed to train law enforcement officers, mental health professionals, and private security officials to identify, assess, and manage individuals of violent intent.

Stephen W. Weston, JD, is a retired 32-year veteran of the California Highway Patrol. For 15 years, he managed the unit responsible for investigating threats against California state officials and government facilities. He is the coauthor of four books with Frederick S. Calhoun, consults with government and private organizations in the management of threatening situations, and lectures throughout the United States on threat management topics. He has served as president of the Northern California Chapter of the Association of Threat Assessment Professionals and taught a class in the California State University system entitled "Violence and Terrorism."