A range of factors must be considered when developing a topical antimicrobial for use in a healthcare personnel handwash, surgical scrub, or preoperative skin preparation. Antimicrobial effectiveness, low skin irritation, ease of use, and pleasing aesthetics are all essential if the product is to succeed. In addition, all facets of the product must
General Approach to Developing Topical Antimicrobials. Business. Quality Assurance. Moving Quality Control Outward. A Tighter Approach to Delivering a Useful Product. The Quadrant Model. A Recurring Problem: Reductionism. Skin Properties. Structure. Epidermis. Dermis. Dermal Vascularization. The Tissue Fluids. Skin Microbiology. Etiology of Infectious Diseases. Bacterial Cell. Mycology (Fungi). Specific Microorganisms. Staphylococcus. Streptococcus. Other Microorganisms. Fungi. Viruses. Measurement of Antimicrobial Action of Topical Antimicrobials. General Performance Characteristics. Current Topical Antimicrobials. Iodine Complexes. Chlorhexidine Gluconate. Tinctures of CHG and Alcohol. Parachlorometaxylenol. Alcohols Triclosan. Quaternary Ammonium Compounds. General Statistics. Sample Size Determination. What Type of Analysis Should I Use to Ensure the Study. Specific Statistical Designs for Clinical Trials. Preoperative Skin Preparation. Epistemological Requirements in Evaluating the Effects of Specific Treatments. Experimental Strategy. Choice of Qualitative or Quantitative Methods. Statistical Models. Statistical Model-Building and Analysis: Exploratory Phase. Statistical Model Selection. Parametric Statistics. Nonparametric Statistics. Qualitative Research Designs. Phenomenological Designs. Heuristic Designs. Historical Research Design. Evaluative Research Design. Evaluation Strategies and Sample Working Protocols. Consumer Antimicrobial Products. Antimicrobial Efficacy Studies. Sample Protocol: Healthcare Personnel Handwash. Evaluations. General-Use Handwash Evaluation. Medical/Healthcare Industry Antimicrobials. References. Index.