Tourism Ethics  book cover
1st Edition

Tourism Ethics

Edited By

Fennell David

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ISBN 9780415721356
Published April 25, 2016 by Routledge
2010 Pages


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Book Description

The promulgation of the Global Code of Ethics for Tourism by the General Assembly of the World Tourism Organization in 1999 underscored the growing importance of tourism ethics as a significant domain of research and study. Following the lead of other applied fields—like environmental ethics, business ethics, and medical ethics—scholars working in tourism ethics provide theoretical guidance to any number of pressing real-world problems and issues.

As work in tourism ethics continues to flourish, this new title from Routledge meets the need for an authoritative reference work to make sense of a vast and dispersed body of literature. Edited by David A. Fennell, Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Ecotourism, Tourism Ethics is a four-volume collection of classic and contemporary contributions. It brings together material drawn from a plethora of journals, as well as excerpts from key books and difficult-to-find sources.

The first volume of the set covers the main theories of ethics and collects materials that explore why ethics is so important to tourism. Volume II emphasizes the applied nature of ethics in tourism. Codes of ethics, corporate social responsibility, and environmental ethics are examples of this applied work. The third volume, meanwhile, is devoted to how ethics have been used in specific types of tourism. Ecotourism is well represented here, as well as notions of ‘responsible tourism’, ‘fair trade’, and the troubling relationship between poverty and tourism. Volume IV of the collection accentuates the value of building ethics into the structure of educational programmes. The major works gathered here include those that examine the relationship between the academy and the practice of tourism.

With a comprehensive introduction, newly written by the editor, which places the collected materials in their historical and intellectual context, Tourism Ethics is an essential work of reference and is sure to be welcomed by scholars, students, and practitioners as a vital one-stop resource.

Table of Contents



1. K. Caton, ‘Taking the Moral Turn in Tourism Studies’, Annals of Tourism Research, 2012, 39, 4, 1906–28.

2. D. A. Fennell, ‘Evolution in Tourism: The Theory of Reciprocal Altruism and Tourist–Host Interactions’, Current Issues in Tourism, 2006, 9, 2, 105–24.

3. J. Macbeth, ‘Towards an Ethics Platform for Tourism’, Annals of Tourism Research, 2005, 32, 4, 962–84.

4. M. P. Fleckenstein and P. Huebsch, ‘Ethics in Tourism-reality or Hallucination’, Journal of Business Ethics, 1999, 19, 137–42.

Theories of Ethics

5. D. A. Fennell, ‘Ethics and Tourism’, in J. Tribe (ed.), Philosophical Issues in Tourism (Channel View Publications, 2009), pp. 211–26.

6. K. Przeclawski, ‘Deontology of Tourism’, Progress in Tourism and Hospitality Research, 1996, 2, 239–45.

7. P. Heintzman, ‘Leisure, Ethics, and the Golden Rule’, Journal of Applied Recreation Research, 1995, 20, 3, 203–22.

8. B. Lovelock, ‘Ethical Travel Decisions: Travel Agents and Human Rights’, Annals of Tourism Research, 2008, 35, 2, 338–58.

9. T. Mihalič and D. A. Fennell, ‘In Pursuit of a More Just International Tourism: The Concept of Trading Tourism Rights’, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 2014.

10. J. Hultsman, ‘Just Tourism: An Ethical Framework’, Annals of Tourism Research, 1995, 22, 3, 553–67.

11. F. Higgins-Desbiolles, ‘Justice Tourism and Alternative Globalisation’, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 2008, 16, 3, 345–64.

12. S. Lee and T. Jamal, ‘Environmental Justice and Environmental Equity in Tourism: Missing Links to Sustainability’, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 2008, 7, 1, 44–67.

13. T. Jamal and B. A. Camargo, ‘Sustainable Tourism, Justice and an Ethic of Care: Toward the Just Destination’, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 2013.

14. J. A. Baptista, ‘The Virtuous Tourist: Consumption, Development, and Nongovernmental Governance in a Mozambican Village’, American Anthropologist, 2012, 114, 4, 639–51.

15. P. Theerapappisit, ‘Mekong Tourism Development: Capital or Social Mobilization?’, Tourism Recreation Research, 2003, 28, 1, 47–56.

16. M. Smith, ‘Development and its Discontents: Ego-tripping Without Ethics or Idea(l)s?’, in J. Tribe (ed.), Philosophical Issues in Tourism (Channel View Publications, 2009), pp. 261–77.

17. D. Matless, ‘Moral Geography in Broadlands’, Ecumene, 1994, 1, 2, 127–55.

18. G. Waitt, R. Figueroa, and L. McGee, ‘Fissures in the Rock: Rethinking Pride and Shame in the Moral Terrains of Uluru’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 2007, 32, 248–63.


19. J. Butcher, ‘Against Ethical Tourism’, in J. Tribe (ed.), Philosophical Issues in Tourism (Channel View Publications, 2009), pp. 244–60.

20. C. Gibson, ‘Geographies of Tourism: (Un)ethical Encounters’, Progress in Human Geography, 2005, 34, 4, 521–7.

Non-human Animals and Tourism

21. A. Shani and A. Pizam, ‘Towards an Ethical Framework for Animal-based Attractions’, New Zealand Management, 2008, 20, 6, 679–93.

22. S. Wearing and C. Jobberns, ‘Ecotourism and the Commodification of Wildlife: Animal Welfare and the Ethics of Zoos’, in W. Frost (ed.), Zoos and Tourism: Conservation, Education, Entertainment? (Channel View Publications, 2011), pp. 47–58.

23. R. Duffy and L. Moore, ‘Global Regulations and Local Practices: The Politics and Governance of Animal Welfare in Elephant Tourism’, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 2011, 19, 4–5, 589–604.

24. E. Cohen, ‘"Buddhist Compassion" and "Animal Abuse" in Thailand’s Tiger Temple’, Society & Animals, 2013.

25. P. Hughes, ‘Animals, Values and Tourism: Structural Shifts in UK Dolphin Tourism Provision’, Tourism Management, 2001, 22, 4, 321–9.

26. J. Dobson, ‘Towards a Utilitarian Ethic for Marine Wildlife Tourism’, Tourism in Marine Environments, 2011, 7, 3–4, 213–22.

27. G. L. Burns, J. MacBeth, and S. Moore, ‘Should Dingoes Die? Principles for Engaging Ecocentric Ethics in Wildlife Tourism Management’, Journal of Ecotourism, 2011, 10, 3, 179–96.


28. David A. Fennell, ‘Tourism and Applied Ethics’, Tourism Recreation Research, 2000, 25, 1, 59–70.

29. Tearfund, Tourism: Putting Ethics into Practice (Tearfund, 2001).

Codes of Ethics

30. L. J. D’Amore, ‘A Code of Ethics and Guidelines for Socially and Environmentally Responsible Tourism’, Journal of Travel Research, 1993, 31, 3, 64–6.

31. D. C. Malloy and D. A. Fennell, ‘Codes of Ethics and Tourism: An Exploratory Content Analysis’, Tourism Management, 1998, 19, 5, 453–61.

32. H. Genot, ‘Voluntary Environmental Codes of Conduct in the Tourism Sector’, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 1995, 3, 3, 166–72.

33. P. Mason and M. Mowforth, ‘Codes of Conduct in Tourism’, Progress in Tourism and Hospitality Research, 1996, 2, 2, 151–67.

34. D. Payne and F. Dimanche, ‘Towards a Code of Conduct for the Tourism Industry: An Ethics Model’, Journal of Business Ethics, 1996, 15, 997–1007.

35. P. Mason, ‘Tourism Codes of Conduct in the Arctic and Sub-Arctic Region’, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 1997, 5, 2, 151–65.

36. Q. Castañeda, ‘The Neoliberal Imperative of Tourism: Rights and Legitimization in the UNWTO Global Code of Ethics for Tourism’, Society for Applied Anthropology, 2012, 34, 3, 47–51.

Environmental Ethics

37. N. Beaumont, ‘Ecotourism and the Conservation Ethic: Recruiting the Uninitiated or Preaching to the Converted?’, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 2001, 9, 4, 317–41.

38. A. Holden, ‘In Need of a New Environmental Ethics for Tourism?’, Annals of Tourism Research, 2003, 30, 1, 95–108.

39. A. Holden, ‘The Environment-Tourism Nexus: Influence of Market Ethics’, Annals of Tourism Research, 2009, 36, 3, 373–89.

Corporate Social Responsibility

40. R. Ravinder, ‘Ethical Issues in Collaboration in the Aviation Industry’, Tourism Review International, 2007, 11, 2, 175–85.

41. P. Williams, A. Gill, and I. Ponsford, ‘Corporate Social Responsibility at Tourism Destinations: Toward a Social License to Operate’, Tourism Review International, 2007, 11, 2, 133–44.

42. J. L. Holcomb, R. S. Upchurch, and F. Okumus, ‘Corporate Social Responsibility: What are Top Hotel Companies Reporting?’, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 2007, 19, 6, 461–75.

Tourism Industry Ethics

43. D. L. Whitney, ‘Ethics in the Hospitality Sector: With a Focus on Hotel Managers’, International Journal of Hospitality Management, 1990, 9, 1, 59–68.

44. A. H. Walle, ‘Business Ethics and Tourism: From Micro to Macro Perspectives’, Tourism Management, 1995, 16, 4, 263–8.

45. R. S. Upchurch and S. K. Ruhland, ‘An Analysis of Ethical Work Climate and Leadership Relationship in Lodging Operations’, Journal of Travel Research, 1995, 34, 2, 36–42.

46. T. W. Dunfree and B. M. Black, ‘Ethical Issues Confronting Travel Agents’, Journal of Business Ethics, 1996, 15, 207–17.

47. C. Weeden, ‘Ethical Tourism: An Opportunity for Competitive Advantage?’, Journal of Vacation Marketing, 2001, 8, 2, 141–53.

48. G. Ross, ‘Ethical Ideals and Expectations Regarding Visitor, Staff, and Management Among Potential Tourist Industry Employees’, Tourism Analysis, 2003, 8, 2–4, 211–15.

49. B. Keating, ‘Managing Ethics in the Tourism Supply Chain: The Case of Chinese Travel to Australia’, International Journal of Tourism Research, 2009, 11, 403–8.

Marketing Ethics

50. M. Wheeler, ‘Tourism Marketing Ethics: An Introduction’, International Marketing Review, 1995, 12, 4, 38–49.

51. G. Ross, ‘Ethical Beliefs, Work Problem-Solving Strategies and Learning Styles as Mediators of Tourism Marketing Entrepreneurialism’, Journal of Vacation Marketing, 2003, 9, 2, 119–36.

52. S. Hudson and G. Miller, ‘The Responsible Marketing of Tourism: The Case of Canadian Mountain Holidays’, Tourism Management, 2005, 26, 2, 133–42.

53. H. R. Yaman and E. Gurel, ‘Ethical Ideologies of Tourism Marketers’, Annals of Tourism Research, 2006, 33, 2, 470–89.



54. P. A. Wight, ‘Ecotourism: Ethics or Eco-sell?’, Journal of Travel Research, 1993, 21, 3, 3–9.

55. D. A. Fennell and David C. Malloy, ‘Ethics and Ecotourism: A Comprehensive Ethical Model’, Journal of Applied Recreation Research, 1995, 20, 3, 163–83.

56. J. Karwacki and C. Boyd, ‘Ethics and Ecotourism’, A European Review, 1995, 4 225–32.

57. D. C. Malloy and D. A. Fennell, ‘Ecotourism and Ethics: Moral Development and Organizational Cultures’, Journal of Travel Research, 1998, 36, 47–56.

58. D. A. Fennell and David C. Malloy, ‘Measuring the Ethical Nature of Tourism Operators’, Annals of Tourism Research, 1999, 26, 4, 928–43.

59. J. C. Stark, ‘Ethics and Ecotourism: Connection and Conflicts’, Philosophy and Geography, 2002, 5, 1, 101–13.

Third-World Tourism

60. Z. U. Ahmed, F. B. Krohn, and V. L. Heller, ‘International Tourism Ethics as a Way to World Understanding’, Journal of Tourism Studies, 1994, 5, 2, 36–44.

61. J. P. Lea, ‘Tourism Development Ethics in the Third World’, Annals of Tourism Research, 1993, 20, 701–15.

62. S. Hudson, ‘To Go or Not to Go? Ethical Perspectives on Tourism in an "Outpost of Tyranny"’, Journal of Business Ethics, 2007, 76, 4, 385–96.

Social Tourism

63. F. Higgins-Desbiolles, ‘More than an "Industry": The Forgotten Power of Tourism as a Social Force’, Tourism Management, 2006, 27, 1192–208.

64. L. Minnaert, R. Maitland, and M. Graham, ‘Social Tourism and its Ethical Foundations’, Tourism, Culture & Communication, 2006, 7, 1, 7–17.

Responsible Tourism

65. B. Wheeller, ‘Tourism’s Troubled Times: Responsible Tourism is Not the Answer’, Tourism Management, 1991, 91–6.

66. E. D’Sa, ‘Wanted: Tourists with a Social Conscious’, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 1999, 11, 2/3, 64–8.

67. H. Goodwin, ‘Ethical and Responsible Tourism: Consumer Trends in the UK’, Journal of Vacation Marketing, 2003, 9, 3, 271–84.

68. D. A. Fennell, ‘Responsible Tourism: A Kierkegaardian Perspective’, Tourism Recreation Research, 2008, 33, 1, 3–12.

69. C. Weeden, ‘Responsible Tourist Motivation: How Valuable is the Schwartz Value Survey?’, Journal of Ecotourism, 2011, 10, 3, 214–34.

70. B. S. R. Grimwood, ‘Illuminating Traces: Enactments of Responsibility in Practices of Arctic River Tourists and Inhabitants’, Journal of Ecotourism, 2013, 12, 2, 53–74.

Fair-Trade Tourism

71. A. Nicholls, ‘Fair Trade: Towards an Economics of Virtue’, Journal of Business Ethics, 2010, 92, 241–55.

72. K. A. Boluk, ‘Fair Trade Tourism South Africa: Consumer Virtue or Moral Selving?’, Journal of Ecotourism, 2011, 10, 3, 235–49.

Pro-Poor Tourism

73. R. Scheyvens, ‘Exploring the Tourism-Poverty Nexus’, Current Issues in Tourism, 2007, 10, 2/3, 231–54.

74. D. Harrison, ‘Pro-poor Tourism: A Critique’, Third World Quarterly, 2008, 29, 5, 851–68.

Poverty Tourism

75. E. Selinger, ‘Ethics and Poverty Tours’, Philosophy & Pubic Policy Quarterly, 2009, 29, 1/2, 2–7.

76. P. Dyson, ‘Slum Tourism: Representing and Interpreting "Reality" in Dharavi, Mumbai’, Tourism Geographies: An International Journal of Tourism Space, Place and Environment, 2012.

Backpacker Tourism

77. C. Speed, ‘Are Backpackers Ethical Tourists?’, in K. Hannam and I. Atelievic (eds.), Backpacker Tourism: Concepts and Profiles (Channel View Publications, 2008), pp. 54–81.

Sex Tourism

78. J. S. Eades, ‘Moving Bodies: The Intersections of Sex, Work, and Tourism’, in Donald C. Wood (ed.), Economic Development, Integration, and Morality in Asia and the Americas (Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2009), pp. 225–53.

79. N. A. Wonders and R. Michalowski, ‘Bodies, Borders, and Sex Tourism in a Globalized World: A Tale of Two Cities—Amsterdam and Havana’, Social Problems, 2001, 48, 4, 545–71.

Medical Tourism

80. J. Connell, ‘Medical Tourism: Sea, Sun, Sand and … Surgery’, Tourism Management, 2006, 27, 1093–100.

81. Z. Meghani, ‘A Robust, Particularist Ethical Assessment of Medical Tourism’, Developing World Bioethics, 2011, 11, 1, 16–29.


Initiatives in Education

82. L. K. Enghagen, ‘Teaching Ethics in Hospitality and Tourism Education’, Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 1990, 14, 2, 467–74.

83. L. K. Enghagen, ‘Ethics in Hospitality/Tourism Education: A Survey’, Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 1990, 14, 2, 113–18.

84. R. O’Halloran, ‘Ethics in Hospitality and Tourism Education: The New Managers’, Hospitality and Tourism Educator, 1991, 3, 3, 33–7.

85. G. Vallen and M. Casado, ‘Ethical Principles for the Hospitality Curriculum’, Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Quarterly, 2000, 41, 2, 44–51.

86. J. Tribe, ‘The Philosophic Practitioner’, Annals of Tourism Research, 2002, 29, 2, 338–57.

87. J. Tribe, ‘Education for Ethical Tourism Action’, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 2002, 10, 4, 309–24.

88. H. R. Yaman, ‘Skinner’s Naturalism as a Paradigm for Teaching Business Ethics: A Discussion from Tourism’, Teaching Business Ethics, 2003, 7, 107–22.

89. T. Jamel, ‘Virtue Ethics and Sustainable Tourism Pedagogy: Phronesis, Principles and Practice’, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 2004, 12, 6, 530–45.

90. E. Cohen, ‘Towards an Ethics of Responsibility in Tourism Education’, Tourism Recreation Research, 2010, 35, 3, 302–3.

91. P. J. Sheldon, D. R. Fesenmaier, and J. Tribe, ‘The Tourism Education Futures Initiative (TEFI): Activating Change in Tourism Education’, Journal of Teaching in Travel & Tourism, 2011, 11, 2–23.

Studies Involving Students

92. S. Hudson and G. Miller, ‘Knowing the Difference Between Right and Wrong: The Response of Tourism Students to Ethical Dilemmas’, Journal of Teaching in Travel & Tourism, 2006, 6, 2, 41–59.

93. E. Marnburg, ‘"I Hope it Won’t Happen to Me!" Hospitality and Tourism Students’ Fear of Difficult Moral Situations as Managers’, Tourism Management, 2006, 27, 561–75.

94. Sylvester Yiu-cho Yeung, Simon Chak-keung Wong, and Benny Man-leong Chan, Ethical Beliefs of Hospitality and Tourism Students Towards Their School Life’, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 2002, 14, 4, 183–92.

95. S. Yeung, ‘Hospitality Ethics Curriculum: An Industry Perspective’, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 2004, 16, 4, 253–62.

Different Perspectives on Research

96. G. Moscardo, ‘Tourism Research Ethics: Current Considerations and Future Options’, Tourism Research: A 20-20 Vision (Goodfellow Publishers, 2010), pp. 203–14.

97. A. Pritchard, N. Morgan, and I. Ateljevic, ‘Hopeful Tourism: A New Transformative Perspective’, Annals of Tourism Research, 2011, 38, 3, 941–63.

98. C. Ryan, ‘Ethics in Tourism Research: Objectives and Personal Perspectives’, in B. W. Ritchie, P. Burns, and C. Palmer (eds.), Tourism Research Methods: Integrating Theory with Practice (CABI, 2005), pp. 9–21.

99. W. G. Feighery, ‘Consulting Ethics’, Annals of Tourism Research, 2011, 38, 3, 1031–50.

100. D. A. Fennell, ‘The Ethics of Excellence in Tourism Research’, Journal of Travel Research, 2013, 52, 4, 417–25.

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