This timely new book presents practical information about the effective implementation of water-quality-based toxics control for wastewater treatment plants. It addresses five main subject areas, including approaches to toxics control, legal issues, toxicity identification and reduction evaluations, whole effluent toxicity testing, and chemical specific limits. Case examples from actual experiences illustrate workable solutions for implementing new water-quality-based permit requirements.
The book provides a useful reference for wastewater treatment plant personnel, industrial wastewater treatment professionals, government agency regulators, environmental consultants, and environmental attorneys.
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY. INTRODUCTION. Summary. Use of the Document. List of Authors and Expert References. APPROACHES TO TOXIC CONTROL. LEGAL ISSUES IN WATER-QUALITY-BASED PERMITTING. Setting Regulatory Standards. The Permit Process. Key Permit Conditions for POTWs. Recommendations for Numeric and Whole-Effluent Toxicity Permitting. Bibliography of Essential EPA Guidance Documents. CONSIDERATIONS IN WHOLE-EFFLUENT TOXICITY TESTING. Background. Correlating Laboratory Testing and Field Conditions. Precision of Toxicity Tests. Setting Toxicity-Based Permit Limits. Technical Issues in Toxicity Testing. Issues in Toxicity Testing Using Saltwater Species. Whole-Effluent Toxicity Testing. Evaluation of Contract Laboratories for Toxicity Testing. Case Study: False-Positive Results May Plague Biomonitoring Tests. References. TOXICITY REDUCTION EVALUATIONS. Introduction. Purpose of TREs. Considerations in Designing TRE Plans. The TRE Process. Other Considerations in Establishing a TRE Program. Case Studies. Selecting a TIE/TRE Laboratory. References. CHEMICAL-SPECIFIC LIMITS. Introduction. Developing Chemical-Specific Effluent Toxicity Limits. Considerations in Developing Regulations to Control Toxic Substances. Numerical Effluent Limits in Individual Permits. Questions about Chemical-Specific Permit Limits. References. APPENDIX 4A: From the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1948 to the Clean Water Act of 1987: An Evolution in Controlling Toxic Substances. APPENDIX 4B: Water Quality Classifications and Standards: Their Basic Elements. TABLES. Effects of Temperature on Ammonia. Percent of Un-ionized Ammonia at Various pH and Temperatures. TRE Consultant Evaluation Criteria. Comparison of Typical Wastewater Characteristics and Effluent Requirements in the Atlanta Metropolitan Area. Metals Removal Technology Capabilities. Preliminary Cost Estimates for Viable Metals Removal Technologies. Heavy-Metal Concentration of Various Household Products. Heavy-Metal Contribution from Household Products.