Different from other books, this unique volume presents basic toxicology principles and applications in a sophisticated yet nontechnical style. It provides an understanding of both the strengths and limitations of the discipline of toxicology and its benefits. This primer is valuable for virtually any non-toxicologist.
"For anyone who wishes a very readable and well-written primer on toxicology and some of its applications and limitations, this volume is highly recommended."
-Journal of Hazardous Materials
CHEMICAL INDIVIDUALITY and TOXICITY. Types of Chemicals. Shapes of Chemicals. Polarities of Chemicals. Doses of Chemicals. Dose-Response. Categories of Toxicity. Types of Toxic Effects. Testing Protocols. Summary. HUMAN VARIABILITY and TOXICITY. Genetics, Age and Sex. Health and Previous Exposures. Psychological Factors. THE HUMAN BODY and TOXIC CHEMICALS. Absorption and Distribution. Metabolism. Storage and Excretion. Receptors. Time Course of Toxicity. TYPES of TOXIC EFFECTS. Organ Toxicity. Lung Toxicity. Kidney Toxicity. Multiple Effects. Carcinogenesis. Teratogenesis. Reproductive Toxicity. Mutagenesis. TOXICITY ASSESSMENT. Acute Toxicity Testing/LD50. Subacute Toxicity Testing. Chronic Toxicity Testing/Animal Experimentation. Chronic Toxicity Testing/Epidemiology. Retrospective/Case-Control Studies. Prospective/Cohort Studies. Short-Term Tests. RISK ASSESSMENT and RISK MANAGEMENT. Exposure Assessement/Direct Environmental Measurement. Exposure Assessment/Indirect Environmental Measurement. Exposure Assessment/Analysis of Exposed Population. Risk Assessment. Risk Management. Exposure Reduction. Other Risk Management Strategies. Risk Perception. Role of Congress. THE CASE of ARTIFICIAL SWEETENERS. Cyclamates. Toxicity Assessments and Risk Management. Saccharin. Congressional Intervention. Aspartame/Another Alternative. A New Risk Management Approach. THE CASE of ASBESTOS. Asbestos and Asbestosis. Asbestos and Lung Cancer. Asbestos and Mesothelioma. Risk Management of Asbestos. Asbestos and Smoking. THE CASE of FORMALDEHYDE. Acute Effects of Formaldehyde. Formaldehyde and Cancer. Urea-Formaldehyde Foam Insulation (UFFI). Risk Management of Occupational Exposure to Formaldehyde. THE CASE of BENZENE. Benzene and Anemia. Benzene and Cancer. Benzene Regulations in the Workplace. Benzene and Air Pollution. Benzene and Water Pollution. SUMMARY. APPENDIX A. National Primary Drinking Water Standards. APPENDIX B. National Ambient Air Quality Standards. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. APPENDIX C. National Occupational Standards. Regulations for OSHA-Designated Occupational Carcinogens. APPENDIX D. Glossary of Toxicology Terms. BIBLIOGRAPHY. INDEX.