Many wetlands around the world act as sinks for pollutants, in particular for trace elements. In comparison to terrestrial environments, wetlands are still far less studied. A collaborative effort among world experts, this book brings the current knowledge concerning trace elements in temporary waterlogged soils and sediments together. It discusses factors controlling the dynamics and release kinetics of trace elements and their underlying biogeochemical processes. It also discusses current technologies for remediating sites contaminated with trace metals, and the role of bioavailability in risk assessment and regulatory decision making. This book is intended for professionals around the world in disciplines related to contaminant bioavailability in aquatic organisms, contaminant fate and transport, remediation technologies, and risk assessment of aquatic and wetland ecosystems.
Table of Contents
SECTION I Understanding, Processes, and Needs
Chapter 1 Processes Related to Release Dynamics of Trace Elements in Flooded Soils at
Chapter 2 Physicochemical Factors Controlling Stability of Toxic Heavy Metals and
Metalloids in Wetland Soils and Sediments
Kenan Gedik, R. D. DeLaune, M. Kongchum, and R. P. Gambrell
Chapter 3 Redox Reactions of Heavy Metal(loid)s in Soils and Sediments in Relation to
Bioavailability and Remediation
Anitha Kunhikrishnan, Balaji Seshadri, Girish Choppala, Shiv Shankar, Ramya Thangarajan, and Nanthi Bolan
Chapter 4 Sorption–Desorption of Trace Elements in Soils Influence of Kinetics
H. Magdi Selim
Chapter 5 Speciation and Release Kinetics of Cadmium and Zinc in Paddy Soils
Saengdao Khaokaew, Gautier Landrot, and Donald L. Sparks
Chapter 6 Analysis and Fate of Metal-Based Engineered Nanoparticles in Aquatic
Environments, Wetlands, and Floodplain Soils
Frederik Van Koetsem, Jörg Rinklebe, and Gijs Du Laing
Chapter 7 Rare Earth Elements in Wetlands
Mélanie Davranche, Gérard Grau, Aline Dia, Martine Le Coz-Bouhnik, Rémi Marsac, Mathieu Pédrot, and Olivier Pourret
Chapter 8 Subsoil Contaminant Cr Fate and Transport The Complex Reality of the
Nikolla P. Qafoku and Rahul Sahajpal
Chapter 9 Biogeochemical Processes Regulating the Mobility of Uranium in Sediments
Keaton M. Belli and Martial Taillefert
Chapter 10 Uranium Interaction with Soil Minerals in the Presence of Co-Contaminants
Case Study of Subsurface Sediments at or below the Water Table
Brandy N. Gartman and Nikolla P. Qafoku
SECTION II Bioavailability
Chapter 11 Metal Bioavailability in Land-Disposed Dredged Sediments
Filip M. G. Tack
Chapter 12 Metal Bioavailability in Sediments and Its Role in Risk Assessment
Michael H. Paller and Anna Sophia Knox
Chapter 13 Potential Mobility, Bioavailability, and Plant Uptake of Toxic Elements in
Temporary Flooded Soils
Sabry M. Shaheen, Christos D. Tsadilas, Yong Sik Ok, and Jörg Rinklebe
Chapter 14 Fate of Trace Elements in Rice Paddies
Abin Sebastian, Natthawoot Panitlertumpai, Woranan Nakbanpote, and Majeti Narasimha Vara Prasad
Chapter 15 Reduction Induced Immobilization of Chromium and Its Bioavailability in
Soils and Sediments
Girish Choppala, Anitha Kunhikrishnan, Balaji Seshadri, Shiv Shankar, Richard Bush, and Nanthi Bolan
Chapter 16 Metal Bioavailability in Phoomdi—Compost from Loktak Lake (Ramsar Site),
Manipur, North-East India
Maibam Dhanaraj Meitei and Majeti Narasimha Vara Prasad
SECTION III Remediation
Chapter 17 Remediation of Metal-Contaminated Sediments
Anna Sophia Knox and Michael H. Paller
Chapter 18 Passive and Active Capping for In Situ Remediation of Contaminated Sediments
Jörg Rinklebe is a professor for soil and groundwater management at the University of Wuppertal (Germany). From 1997 to 2006, Dr. Rinklebe worked as a scientist and project leader at the department of soil sciences at the UFZ Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle, Germany. He studied ecology for one year at the University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom (1992–1993). He studied agriculture, specializing in soil science and plant nutrition, at the Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg, Germany, and earned his PhD in soil science at the same university. Currently his research is mainly focused on wetland soils, sediments, waters, plants, and the related pollution (trace elements and nutrients) and biogeochemical issues. He also has a certain expertise in remediation of soils and soil microbiology. Professor Rinklebe is internationally recognized, particularly for his research in the area of the redox-chemistry of trace elements in flooded soils. He has published many scientific papers in international and national journals as well as numerous book chapters. He serves on several editorial boards (Geoderma, Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, Ecotoxicology, Archive of Agronomy and Soil Science). He is also a reviewer for many international journals. He has co-organized several special symposia at various international conferences, such as Biogeochemistry of Trace Elements (10th, 11th, 12th, and 13th ICOBTE) and International Conference on Heavy Metals in the Environment (15th, 16th, and 17th ICHMET). He has been an invited speaker at many international conferences.
Anna Sophia Knox is a fellow scientist at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in Aiken, South Carolina, where she conducts research on the remediation of contaminated sediments and soils and development of new materials for the stabilization of contaminants. She earned a PhD (1993) in agronomy and soil science and was certified as a professional soil scientist by the Soil Science Society of America on December 20, 1999. Dr. Knox has 25 years of responsible experience in environmental science, with emphasis on the biogeochemistry and geochemistry of metals and radionuclides in natural and contaminated soils/sediments; the transformation, transport, and bioavailability of contaminants; and the remediation of contaminated soils/sediments. She has published more than 95 scientific papers, book chapters, and patents; has presented numerous papers at scientific meetings and international conferences; and has organized several sessions and special symposia on contaminants in soils and sediments for international conferences/meetings such as the International Conference on Remediation of Contaminated Sediments, International Conference of Biogeochemistry of Trace Elements (10th,11th, 12th, and 13th ICOBTE), International Conference on Heavy Metals in the Environment (15th, 16th, and 17th ICHMET), and others. Dr. Knox is nationally and internationally recognized as one of the leading authorities in the area of active capping research. She has received several awards, including a DOE Women of Excellence in Science and Engineering award and several Key Contributor Awards because of crucial contributions to the strategic goals of the Savannah River National Laboratory. Her participation in professional societies includes serving on the editorial boards for both the International Society of Environmental Forensic Journal and Journal of Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science.
Michael H. Paller is a senior fellow scientist at the Savannah River National Laboratory in Aiken, South Carolina. He earned a PhD in zoology at Southern Illinois University and has over 35 years of experience studying aquatic ecosystems. Areas of particular interest include fish and macroinvertebrate ecology, environmental impact assessment, aquatic toxicology, ecological risk assessment, remediation of contaminated sediments, the fate and transfer of radionuclides through aquatic ecosystems, and the application of passive samplers to measure environmental contamination. Recent activities include the development of ecological risk assessment protocols for the Savannah River Site, a 780-km2 U.S. Department of Energy facility in South Carolina, and a multiyear effort to develop ecological reference models for coastal plain streams on Department of Defense installations in the southeastern United States. Dr. Paller has served on the editorial board of the American Fisheries Society, has served on several river basin committees, and has helped to organize special symposia on the fate and transport of metals in sediments. He is the author of over 140 refereed publications and technical reports and one book. Dr. Paller also serves as a faculty member at Georgia Regents University in Augusta, Georgia, where he teaches biology and environmental science.
Wetland and other water-logged soils are of special importance in providing particular ecosystem services such as hydrological buffering, organic carbon storage, habitat and biodiversity source. Sediments play a role of similar importance as components of the aquatic environment at the bottom of water bodies. Both have in common that they also act as sinks for recalcitrant chemicals and as such are increasingly loaded with trace elements of anthropogenic origin. Due to the dominance of anaerobic conditions, the fate of trace elements in water-logged soils and sediments is governed by very different processes and mechanisms in these environments as compared to well-aerated soils. Against this backdrop, it is all the more remarkable how little we still know about these processes and the factors driving them. This book thus is very timely. It is also very comprehensive. In eighteen chapters written by experts in the respective fields, it gives the latest findings and insights into physicochemical factors and reactions controlling the speciation and binding of heavy metals and metalloids in water-logged soils and sediments, their bioavailability and the assessment of associated risks for humans and other recipients, and also on established remediation technology. Several chapters have a focus on redox-sensitive metals and metalloids such as arsenic, selenium, chromium and uranium. Some deal with new contaminants such as rare earth elements, others with ‘usual suspects’ such as cadmium and zinc. While various contributions are devoted to more fundamental aspects such as the kinetics of sorption and desorption processes or the mechanisms governing the retention and mobility of nanoparticles in aquatic environments, others provide insight into the role of particular environments such as paddies and other temporary flooded soils for trace element behavior or present specific case studies, e.g. on the fate of subsurface chromium on the Hanford site. In summary, this book not only fills an important gap in advancing our understanding of the environmental behavior of trace elements in waterlogged soils and sediments, but also gives valuable advice for those applying this knowledge in risk assessment, remediation and management of contaminated wetlands and aquatic environments.
--- Rainer Schulin, Professor for Soil Protection, ETH Zürich, Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystems, Switzerland
In Trace Elements in Waterlogged Soils and Sediment, editors Rinklebe, Knox and Paller have assembled contributions from an impressive list of accomplished researchers actively working in the field of trace element biogeochemistry as it pertains to waterlogged environmental systems. The book is composed of eighteen chapters roughly divided into three sections focused on fundamental processes, bioavailability, and remediation options. While providing some specific case studies related to a diverse range of contaminated systems, the chapters also contain significant fundamental material that make it equally beneficial to students and more experienced practitioners with interest in this field of study.
---- John C. Seaman - Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, The University of Georgia.