Transfrontier Conservation Areas People Living on the Edge
The introduction of transfrontier conservation areas (TFCAs) in southern Africa was based on an enchanting promise: simultaneously contributing to global biodiversity conservation initiatives, regional peace and integration, and the sustainable socio-economic development of rural communities. Cross-border collaboration and eco-tourism became seen as the vehicles of this promise, which would enhance regional peace and stability along the way. However, as these highly political projects take shape, conservation and development policymaking progressively shifts from the national to regional and global arenas, and the peoples most affected by TFCA formation tend to disappear from view.
This book focuses on the forgotten people displaced by, or living on the edge of, protected wildlife areas. It moves beyond the grand 'enchanting promise' of conservation and development across frontiers, and unfounded notions of TFCAs as integrated social-ecological systems. Peoples' dependency on natural resources – the specific combination of crop cultivation, livestock keeping and natural resource harvesting activities – varies enormously along the conservation frontier, as does their reliance on resources on the other side of the conservation boundary. Hence, the studies in this book move from the dream of eco-tourism-fuelled development supporting nature conservation and people towards the local realities facing marginalized people, living adjacent to protected areas in environments often poorly suited to agriculture.
Foreword. Professor Marshall W. Murphree. 1. People at wildlife frontiers in southern Africa. Jens A. Andersson, Michel de Garine-Wichatitsky, David H. M. Cumming, Vupenyu Dzingirai and Ken E. Giller. 2. TFCAs and the invisible peoples. Jens A. Andersson, Vupenyu Dzingirai and David H. M. Cumming. 3. Defining the edge: Boundary formation and TFCAs in southern Africa. Jens A. Andersson and David H. M. Cumming. 4. Population and livelihoods on the edge. Ken E. Giller, Frederic Baudron, Steven Matema, Jessica Milgroom, Chrispen Murungweni, Chloé Guerbois and Wayne Twine. 5. Ethnic heterogeneity and its implications for natural resources management on the edge. Billy Mukamuri, Chaka Chirozva, Collen Matema, Steven Matema, Wayne Twine and Tendai Nzuma. 6. On the edge of state and economy. Vupenyu Dzingirai, Jens A. Andersson, Frederic Baudron, Jessica Milgroom, Chrispen Murungweni and Xavier Poshiwa. 7. Resource gradients and movements across the edge of transfrontier parks. Amon Murwira, Michel de Garine-Wichatitsky, Fadzai Zengeya, Xavier Poshiwa, Steven Matema, Alexandre Caron, Chloé Guerbois, Eleonore Hellard, Hervé Fritz. 8. Consequences of animals crossing the edges of transfrontier parks. Michel de Garine-Wichatitsky, Hervé Fritz, Petronella Chaminuka, Alexandre Caron, Chloé Guerbois, Davies M. Pfukenyi, Collen Matema, Ferran Jori and Amon Murwira. 9. Land and natural resource-based livelihood opportunities in transfrontier conservation areas. David H. M. Cumming, Vupenyu Dzingirai and Michel de Garine-Wichatitsky. 10. Whither TFCAs and people on the edge in southern Africa? David H. M. Cumming, Jens A. Andersson, Michel de Garine-Wichatitsky, Vupenyu Dzingirai and Ken E. Giller. Index.
"Surely this book must be considered essential reading for all academics, practitioners and policy makers who are working in transboundary areas in the region, and particularly within developing countries of the world. It is to be hoped that it will influence changes in the way that practitioners work on TFCAs, and refocus their efforts to devise policy and initiatives that drive more rapid and sustainable improvements to the livelihoods of people who live there, while also promoting biodiversity conservation in expansive conservation areas." – Dr Anna Spenceley, IUCN
"The main strength of Transfrontier Conservation Areas lies in its detailed and thorough analysis of the complexities facing TFCA planners in edge environments, which to date have received relatively little research attention." – Biological Conservation, James Bennett, Coventry University
"A search on Amazon.com will present you with five recent books on Transfrontier Conservation. This volume, however, deserves to be particularly recommended as a significant analysis of development policy. It confronts the ideology of Transfrontier Conservation in Southern Africa systematically with the actual realities on the ground and finds that these do not fit. In that respect, it is reminiscent of Ferguson’s Anti Politics Machine." – Jan Kees van Donge, University of Papua New Guinea , European Journal of Development Research