  # Transport Phenomena Fundamentals

## 3rd Edition

CRC Press

838 pages | 512 B/W Illus.

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### Description

The third edition of Transport Phenomena Fundamentals continues with its streamlined approach to the subject of transport phenomena, based on a unified treatment of heat, mass, and momentum transport using a balance equation approach. The new edition makes more use of modern tools for working problems, such as COMSOL®, Maple®, and MATLAB®. It introduces new problems at the end of each chapter and sorts them by topic for ease of use. It also presents new concepts to expand the utility of the text beyond chemical engineering.

The text is divided into two parts, which can be used for teaching a two-term course. Part I covers the balance equation in the context of diffusive transport—momentum, energy, mass, and charge. Each chapter adds a term to the balance equation, highlighting that term's effects on the physical behavior of the system and the underlying mathematical description. Chapters familiarize students with modeling and developing mathematical expressions based on the analysis of a control volume, the derivation of the governing differential equations, and the solution to those equations with appropriate boundary conditions.

Part II builds on the diffusive transport balance equation by introducing convective transport terms, focusing on partial, rather than ordinary, differential equations. The text describes paring down the microscopic equations to simplify the models and solve problems, and it introduces macroscopic versions of the balance equations for when the microscopic approach fails or is too cumbersome. The text discusses the momentum, Bernoulli, energy, and species continuity equations, including a brief description of how these equations are applied to heat exchangers, continuous contactors, and chemical reactors. The book also introduces the three fundamental transport coefficients: the friction factor, the heat transfer coefficient, and the mass transfer coefficient in the context of boundary layer theory. The final chapter covers the basics of radiative heat transfer, including concepts such as blackbodies, graybodies, radiation shields, and enclosures. The third edition incorporates many changes to the material and includes updated discussions and examples and more than 70 new homework problems.

### Table of Contents

Part I Transport Fundamentals and 1-D Systems

Introductory Concepts

Introduction

Scope of Transport Phenomena

Preliminary Assumptions

Equilibrium Foundations

Defining Equilibrium

Fluid Statics

Buoyancy and Stability

Fluids in Rigid Body Motion

Problems

References

Flows, Gradients, and Transport Properties

Introduction

Momentum Transport: Newton’s Law of Viscosity

Energy Transport: Fourier’s Law of Heat Conduction

Mass Transport: Fick’s Law of Diffusion

Charge Transport: Ohm’s Law of Conduction

Driving Force: Resistance Concepts

Flux Laws in Two and Three Dimensions

Mechanistic Differences between the Transport Phenomena

Primary and Secondary Fluxes

Failure of the Linear Flux: Gradient Laws

Summary

Problems

References

Transport Properties of Materials

Introduction

Viscosity of Gases

Viscosity of Liquids: Free Volume Theory

Thermal Conductivity of Gases

Thermal Conductivity of Liquids

Thermal Conductivity of Solids

Diffusivity of Gases

Diffusion in Liquids

Diffusion in Solids

Conductivity, Mobility, and Resistivity

Summary

Problems

References

1-D, Steady-State, Diffusive Transport

Introduction

Boundary Conditions

Boundary Condition Catalog

1-D, Steady-State Diffusive Transport

Composite Media

Variable Transport Properties, Coupled Transport, and Multiple Fluxes

Summary

Problems

References

Generation

Introduction

Generation on the Boundary: Boundary Conditions

One-Dimensional Transport with Generation at the Boundary

Constant Generation Terms

Variable Generation and Coupled Transport

Summary

Problems

Accumulation

Introduction.

Lumped Capacitance

Internal Gradients and Generalized Solutions

Semi-Infinite Systems

Moving Boundary Problems

Periodic Flow in a Rotating Cylindrical System

Summary

Problems

References

Conservative Transport and Waves

Introduction

Momentum Transport

Summary

Problems

References

Transport Enhancement Using Extended Surfaces

Introduction

Heat Transfer: Finned Surfaces

Mass Transfer: Gills, Lungs, etc

Diffusion and Reaction in a Catalyst Pellet

Summary

Problems

References

Part II Multidimensional, Convective, and Radiative Transport

Multidimensional Effects, Potential Functions, and Fields

Introduction

Laplace’s Equation and Fields

Solutions of Laplace’s Equation

Generation, Sources, Sinks, and Poisson’s Equation

Transient Systems

Summary

Problems

References

Convective Transport: Microscopic Balances

Introduction

Momentum Transport

Energy Transport

Mass Transport

Charge Transport

Summary

Problems

References

Macroscopic or Engineering Balances

Introduction

Macroscopic Continuity Equation

Macroscopic Momentum Balance

Macroscopic Mechanical Energy Balance: Extended Bernoulli’s

Equation

Macroscopic Energy Balance

Macroscopic Species Continuity Equation

Macroscopic Charged Species Continuity Equation

Summary

Problems

References

Convective Transport on a Flat Plate (Laminar Boundary Layers)

Introduction

Convective Transport Coefficients, Cf, h, kc, and k±

Boundary Layer Definitions

Derivation of Boundary Layer Equations

Transport Analogies

Hydrodynamic Boundary Layers

Thermal Boundary Layers

Mass Transfer Boundary Layers

Simplified Ionic Boundary Layers

Summary

Problems

References

Convective Transport: Systems with Curvature

Introduction

Flow over Cylinders

Flow over Spheres

Velocity Profiles in Tubes

Heat and Mass Transfer Applications

Coefficients

Taylor Dispersion

Summary

Problems

References

Turbulent Boundary Layers

Introduction

Turbulent Boundary Layer Structure

Transport Equations in Turbulent Flow

Representing the Reynolds Flux Components

Friction Factors and Other Transport Coefficients

Summary

Problems

References

Radiative Transport

Introduction

Preliminary Definitions

Maxwell’s Equations and Heat Transfer

Energy Fluxes in Radiative Systems

Blackbody

Graybody

View Factors

Radiative Energy Exchange

Summary

Problems

References

Nomenclature

Appendix A: Vector Mathematics

A.1 Addition and Subtraction

A.2 Multiplication: The Dot, Cross, and Dyad Products

A.3 Differentiation: Divergence, Gradient, Curl, and Laplacian

A.4 Other Useful Relations

Appendix B: Mathematical Functions

Appendix C: First Eigenvalue for 1-D Transient Conduction with External Convection

Appendix D: Exact Solution to the Boundary Layer Equations

References

Appendix E: Blackbody Emission Functions

Appendix F: Thermodynamic and Transport Properties of Materials

Collision Integrals

References

Appendix G: Comsol® Modules

Index

### About the Authors

Joel L. Plawsky received his BS in chemical engineering from the University of Michigan and his MSCEP and ScD in chemical engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. After graduation, Joel worked for Corning Inc. in its research division before returning to academia at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. He is currently a professor of chemical engineering in the Howard P. Isermann Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering. Joel was a NASA Faculty Fellow in 1999 and 2000 and has had four experiments fly in the microgravity environment of the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station. He is a fellow of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers where he has served as the chairman of the Transport and Energy Processes Division and has received the Institute’s Herbie Epstein Award. Joel serves on the editorial board of Chemical Engineering Communications and is the holder of five patents.

### Subject Categories

##### BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI013000
SCIENCE / Chemistry / General
SCI013060
SCIENCE / Chemistry / Industrial & Technical
SCI055000
SCIENCE / Physics