The Millennium Development Goals, adopted at the UN Millennium Summit in 2000, are the world's targets for dramatically reducing extreme poverty in its many dimensions by 2015 income poverty, hunger, disease, exclusion, lack of infrastructure and shelter while promoting gender equality, education, health and environmental sustainability. These bold goals can be met in all parts of the world if nations follow through on their commitments to work together to meet them. Achieving the Millennium Development Goals offers the prospect of a more secure, just, and prosperous world for all. The UN Millennium Project was commissioned by United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan to develop a practical plan of action to meet the Millennium Development Goals. As an independent advisory body directed by Professor Jeffrey D. Sachs, the UN Millennium Project submitted its recommendations to the UN Secretary General in January 2005. The core of the UN Millennium Project's work has been carried out by 10 thematic Task Forces comprising more than 250 experts from around the world, including scientists, development practitioners, parliamentarians, policymakers, and representatives from civil society, UN agencies, the World Bank, the IMF, and the private sector. The trading system is unbalanced against developing countries. Correcting the imbalance will give developing countries greater economic growth potential and a more effective capacity to defeat poverty. The progressive elimination of remaining trade barriers in goods and services, with rich counties leading by example, coupled with enough support for poor countries to bear adjustment costs and build export capacity must be part of the international pursuit to overcome poverty.
Table of Contents
Foreword -- Task force members -- Preface -- Acknowledgments -- Abbreviations -- Millennium Development Goals -- Overview -- 1 Introduction -- Why is trade expansion critical for the Goals? -- Developing countries and trade -- The World Trade Organization -- The Doha Development Agenda -- Structure of this report -- Part 1 Market access agenda -- 2 Why another Round? -- Who pays for protection? -- 3 Agriculture -- The current protection in OECD countries -- Benefits from farm liberalization -- Addressing concerns about liberalization -- Negotiating issues— strategic view and tactical choices -- 4 Services -- Existing levels of protection in services trade and investment -- Addressing concerns about liberalization -- Priorities for liberalization -- 5 Non-agricultural merchandise trade -- Current levels of protection -- Benefits of liberalization -- Managing adjustment -- Priorities for liberalization -- 6 Keeping markets open -- Contingent protection -- Standards -- 7 Preferential market access -- Has preferential access conferred the expected benefits? -- Has preferential access caused harm? -- Preference erosion -- Conclusion -- Part 2 Rules-related issues -- 8 What should be the scope o f WTO rules? -- Is there a link to market access? -- Are there domestic benefits to negotiating rules on regulation? -- Is there specific value in a WTO agreement? -- 9 The Singapore issues -- The Singapore issues left out of the Doha Round -- Trade facilitation -- Conclusion -- 10 The TR IPS Agreement -- TRIPS and access to medicines -- Interpreting the TRIPS regime on geographical indications -- Conclusion -- 11 Special and differential treatment -- Is there a development case for different treatment on “traditional” trade policy instruments? -- Is there a development case for different treatment on regulatory-type rules? -- Moving forward on special and differential treatment -- Part 3 Other systemic issues -- 12 Coherence -- Policy coherence at the national level -- Policy coherence at the international level -- Other policy coherence for development -- 13 Free trade agreements -- Do free trade agreements confer benefits? -- Intra-developing country free trade agreements -- 14 The Dispute Settlement Understanding -- Who uses the system? -- Why has developing country participation been limited? -- 15 Main conclusions and recommendations -- Main conclusions -- Main recommendations -- Appendix 1 -- Appendix 2 -- Appendix 3 -- Appendix 4 -- Appendix 5 -- Appendix 6 -- Appendix 7 -- Appendix 8 -- Countries on the UN official list of LDCs that are WTO Members or observers -- G'90 countries (ACP, LDC , or African Union) that are WTO Members or observers -- OECD members -- The <(poorest developing countries ”— some relevant factors -- A brief explanation of the structure and operation of the GATS -- The unfinished rules agenda under the GATS -- Summary of preference margins by country for agricultural products, 2003 -- WTO disputes with developing country complainants -- Notes -- References.
The UN Millennium Project was commissioned by the UN Secretary-General and sponsored by the United Nations Development Programme on behalf of the UN Development Group. The report is an independent publication that reflects the views of the members of the Task Force on Trade, who contributed in their personal capacities.