Ultra Wideband Antennas : Design, Methodologies, and Performance book cover
1st Edition

Ultra Wideband Antennas
Design, Methodologies, and Performance

ISBN 9781138893818
Published July 26, 2017 by CRC Press
295 Pages

USD $69.95

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Book Description

Ultra Wideband Antennas: Design, Methodologies, and Performance presents the current state of the art of ultra wideband (UWB) antennas, from theory specific for these radiators to guidelines for the design of omnidirectional and directional UWB antennas. Offering a comprehensive overview of the latest UWB antenna research and development, this book:

  • Discusses the developed theory for UWB antennas in frequency and time domains
  • Delivers a brief exposition of numerical methods for electromagnetics oriented to antennas
  • Describes solid-planar equivalence, which allows flat structures to be implemented instead of volumetric antennas
  • Examines the impedance matching, phase linearity, and radiation patterns as design objectives for omnidirectional and directional antennas
  • Addresses the time domain signal analysis for UWB antennas, from which the distortion phenomenon can be modeled
  • Includes illustrative examples, design equations, CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® simulations, and MATLAB® plot generations
  • Compares the performance of different UWB antennas, supplying useful insight into particular tendencies and unresolved problems

Ultra Wideband Antennas: Design, Methodologies, and Performance provides a valuable reference for the scientific community, as UWB antennas have a variety of applications in body area networks, radar, imaging, spectrum monitoring, electronic warfare, wireless sensor networks, and more.

Table of Contents


Importance of Antennas in Modern Life

Ultra Wideband Systems

UWB Antennas

Scope of the Book


General Concepts of Antennas


Classical Narrowband Antennas

Wire Antennas

Aperture Antennas


Microstrip Antennas

Antenna Arrays


Gain and Directivity

Radiation Pattern Concept



Reflection Coefficient

Quality Factor



Recent Developments in Ultra Wideband Antennas


Background to Ultra Wideband Antennas

Planarized UWB Antennas

Vivaldi Antenna

Planarized Antenna with Rectangular Radiator

CPW-Fed Planar Ultra Wideband Antenna Having a Frequency Band Notch Function

Slot Antenna Based on Precooked Ceramic

Volcano-Smoke Slot Antenna

Printed Circular Disc Monopole Antenna

Microstrip Slot Antenna with Fractal Tuning Stub

Planar Miniature Tapered-Slot-Fed Annular Slot Antenna

Tulip-Shaped Monopole Antenna

Balloon-Shaped Monopole Antenna

Half Cut Disc UWB Antenna

Planar UWB Antenna Array

Octagonal Shaped Fractal UWB Antenna

UWB Planar Monopoles Antennas

Planar Inverted Cone Antenna (PICA)

Bi-Arm Rolled Monopole Antenna

Square Planar Monopole Antenna with Notching Technique

Planar Directional Monopole Antenna with Leaf Form

Compact UWB Antenna

Double Ridged Guide Horn Antenna

Comparison of UWB Antennas



Developments in Ultra Wideband Antenna Theory


UWB Bandwidth

Preliminary Concepts

Biconical Antenna

Planar Monopole Structure as a Basic Element of UWB Antenna Theory

Theory of Planar Monopole Antenna from a Microstrip Antenna

Microstrip Antenna

Planar Monopole Antenna

Planar Monopole Antenna from a Cylindrical Monopole Antenna

Resonance Frequency

Lower Cut-Off Frequency for Different Planar Antenna Shapes

Some Factors that Influence UWB Antenna Performance

Influence of the Radiator

Ground Plane


Phase Linearity

Time Domain and Frequency Domain

The Fourier Transform

Short Time Duration, Wide Spectrum

Impulse Response and Transfer Function

Characteristics of the Impulse Response of a UWB Antenna

Pulse Distortion

Phase Linearity

Frequency Response

Measures of the Change of Phase: Phase Center and Group Delay

Phase Response and Pulse Distortion

Non-Linear and Quasi-Linear Phase Antennas

Frequency Independent Antennas

Other Antennas


Design of Omnidirectional UWB Antennas for Communications

Introduction to Omnidirectional UWB Antennas

Starting Point: Monopole Square Planar Antenna

Design Methodology for Planar Structures

Simulation Results Based on the Design Methodology for Planar Structures

Variation of Beveling Angle

Variation of the Radiator Width

Variation of the Feeder Width

Variation of the Height between the Ground Plane and the Radiator

Reduction of Variations in the Radiation Pattern

Design of Planarized UWB Antennas

General Concepts

Preliminary Square Radiator

Tuning of a Planarized Rectangular Antenna for UWB

Simulation Results

Measurement Results

Scaling Method to Achieve other Bandwidths


Design of Directional Planar and Volumetric UWB Antennas

Introduction to Directional UWB Antennas

Vivaldi Antenna

Leaf Shape Antenna

TEM Horn Antenna

Quasi-Yagi Antenna

Design of a Directive Rectangular Planar Monopole

Design Methodology for a UWB Directive Rectangular PMA

Example of Design of the UWB Directive Rectangular PMA

Mechanical Refinement of the Antenna Structure

Use of a Reflector to Increase the Antenna Directivity

Modification of the Ground Plane to Improve the Antenna Directivity

Design of Planar Directional UWB Antenna for Any Desired Operational Bandwidth

Basic Structure

Transformation Process into Directional Radiation Pattern

Application of the Solid-Planar Correspondence Principle

Design Equation

Experimental Results

Comparison of Different Directive UWB Antennas


Current Tendencies and Some Unresolved Problems

UWB Antennas Today

Impedance Matching, Phase Linearity and Radiation Pattern

Directional UWB Antennas

UWB Antenna Arrays


Body Area Networks

Radar: Medical Imaging and Others

USB Dongle and Access Point

Computational Aspects

Wider and Wider Bandwidths


Numerical Methods for Electromagnetics

Maxwell’s Equations

Basic Field Laws

Scalar and Vector Potentials

Wave Equations

Essence of the Physically-Sized Antennas Problem

Boundary Value Conditions

Normal Components

Tangential Components

Boundary Conditions and Unique Solution to the Maxwell’s Equations

Radiation Condition

Current Distribution on Antennas

Numerical Methods

Continuous Equations in a Finite Computational Environment

Computational Domain and Meshing

Classification of the Methods

Finite Differences Method

Finite Element Method (FEM)

Method of Moments (MoM)

Software Available





Nabla: The Differential Operator

Rectangular Coordinates

Cylindrical Coordinates

Spherical Coordinates

Some Concepts Related to Differential Equations



Differential Equation Systems

Initial and Boundary Value Conditions

Existence and Uniqueness

Poisson and Laplace Equations

Poisson’s Equation

Laplace’s Equation


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Giselle M. Galvan-Tejada received her B.Sc in communications and electronics engineering from the National Polytechnic Institute (IPN), Mexico City, Mexico; her M.Sc in electrical engineering from the Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute (CINVESTAV-IPN); and her Ph.D in electronics and telecommunications engineering from the University of Bradford, UK. Currently, she is working in the Communications Section of the Department of Electrical Engineering of the CINVESTAV-IPN as a lecturer and full-time researcher. She is a member of the IEEE and the National Council of Researchers of Mexico. Her research interests include radiocommunication systems, wireless sensor networks, radio propagation, antenna array technology, ultra wideband antennas, WiMAX, space division multiple access, and techniques to make efficient use of the spectrum.

Marco Antonio Peyrot-Solis received his B.Sc in naval sciences engineering from the Mexican Naval Academy, Antón Lizardo, Veracruz; his M.Sc in electrical engineering from the United States Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California; and his Ph.D in electrical engineering from the Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute (CINVESTAV-IPN), Mexico City, Mexico. Currently, he is working for the Mexican Navy Research Institute (INIDETAM), Veracruz, Mexico, and his research interests include ultra wideband antennas and electromagnetic compatibility.

Hildeberto Jardon-Aguilar received his B.Sc in electrical engineering from the School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering of the National Polytechnic Institute (ESIME-IPN), Mexico City, Mexico, and his Ph.D in radio systems from the Moscow Technical University of Communications and Informatics, Russia. He is currently a full professor at the Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute (CINVESTAV-IPN), Mexico City, Mexico. His research interests include analysis of nonlinearities in radio-frequency and microwave circuits, electromagnetic compatibility, antennas, and photonic systems. He is the author of five books and more than 100 technical papers published in journals and symposiums.


"The topic of ultra wideband antennas continues to be of vital interest to the commercial and defense communities. The ever-increasing demand for wider bandwidths, while retaining compact size, will assure that books on this topic will continue to proliferate. I highly recommend that Ultra Wideband Antennas: Design, Methodologies, and Performance be a critical adjunct to every antenna designer's library."
—Frank B. Gross, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, USA

"This is an outstanding reference with practical design formulas for a wide variety of useful ultra wideband (UWB) elements. This guidance helps an antenna engineer implement a near-optimal design quickly, minimizing the time required to tweak or adjust the design. This work should be on the shelf of anyone interested in rapid implementation of UWB and broadband antenna designs."
—Hans G. Schantz, Q-Track Corporation, Huntsville, Alabama, USA

"... provides a comprehensive treatment of the theory and design of UWB antennas."
Microwave Journal, August 2015

"... perfect for entry-level UWB antenna designers as well as UWB equipment designers and operators."
IEEE Microwave Magazine, March 2016

“Many guidelines on the fundamentals of UWB antennas are presented, giving the reader a very good understanding of UWB antenna theory.”
IEEE Electrical Insulation, September/October 2016