1st Edition

Ultra Wideband Antennas Design, Methodologies, and Performance

    296 Pages
    by CRC Press

    296 Pages 169 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Ultra Wideband Antennas: Design, Methodologies, and Performance presents the current state of the art of ultra wideband (UWB) antennas, from theory specific for these radiators to guidelines for the design of omnidirectional and directional UWB antennas. Offering a comprehensive overview of the latest UWB antenna research and development, this book:

    • Discusses the developed theory for UWB antennas in frequency and time domains
    • Delivers a brief exposition of numerical methods for electromagnetics oriented to antennas
    • Describes solid-planar equivalence, which allows flat structures to be implemented instead of volumetric antennas
    • Examines the impedance matching, phase linearity, and radiation patterns as design objectives for omnidirectional and directional antennas
    • Addresses the time domain signal analysis for UWB antennas, from which the distortion phenomenon can be modeled
    • Includes illustrative examples, design equations, CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® simulations, and MATLAB® plot generations
    • Compares the performance of different UWB antennas, supplying useful insight into particular tendencies and unresolved problems

    Ultra Wideband Antennas: Design, Methodologies, and Performance provides a valuable reference for the scientific community, as UWB antennas have a variety of applications in body area networks, radar, imaging, spectrum monitoring, electronic warfare, wireless sensor networks, and more.


    Importance of Antennas in Modern Life

    Ultra Wideband Systems

    UWB Antennas

    Scope of the Book


    General Concepts of Antennas


    Classical Narrowband Antennas

    Wire Antennas

    Aperture Antennas


    Microstrip Antennas

    Antenna Arrays


    Gain and Directivity

    Radiation Pattern Concept



    Reflection Coefficient

    Quality Factor



    Recent Developments in Ultra Wideband Antennas


    Background to Ultra Wideband Antennas

    Planarized UWB Antennas

    Vivaldi Antenna

    Planarized Antenna with Rectangular Radiator

    CPW-Fed Planar Ultra Wideband Antenna Having a Frequency Band Notch Function

    Slot Antenna Based on Precooked Ceramic

    Volcano-Smoke Slot Antenna

    Printed Circular Disc Monopole Antenna

    Microstrip Slot Antenna with Fractal Tuning Stub

    Planar Miniature Tapered-Slot-Fed Annular Slot Antenna

    Tulip-Shaped Monopole Antenna

    Balloon-Shaped Monopole Antenna

    Half Cut Disc UWB Antenna

    Planar UWB Antenna Array

    Octagonal Shaped Fractal UWB Antenna

    UWB Planar Monopoles Antennas

    Planar Inverted Cone Antenna (PICA)

    Bi-Arm Rolled Monopole Antenna

    Square Planar Monopole Antenna with Notching Technique

    Planar Directional Monopole Antenna with Leaf Form

    Compact UWB Antenna

    Double Ridged Guide Horn Antenna

    Comparison of UWB Antennas



    Developments in Ultra Wideband Antenna Theory


    UWB Bandwidth

    Preliminary Concepts

    Biconical Antenna

    Planar Monopole Structure as a Basic Element of UWB Antenna Theory

    Theory of Planar Monopole Antenna from a Microstrip Antenna

    Microstrip Antenna

    Planar Monopole Antenna

    Planar Monopole Antenna from a Cylindrical Monopole Antenna

    Resonance Frequency

    Lower Cut-Off Frequency for Different Planar Antenna Shapes

    Some Factors that Influence UWB Antenna Performance

    Influence of the Radiator

    Ground Plane


    Phase Linearity

    Time Domain and Frequency Domain

    The Fourier Transform

    Short Time Duration, Wide Spectrum

    Impulse Response and Transfer Function

    Characteristics of the Impulse Response of a UWB Antenna

    Pulse Distortion

    Phase Linearity

    Frequency Response

    Measures of the Change of Phase: Phase Center and Group Delay

    Phase Response and Pulse Distortion

    Non-Linear and Quasi-Linear Phase Antennas

    Frequency Independent Antennas

    Other Antennas


    Design of Omnidirectional UWB Antennas for Communications

    Introduction to Omnidirectional UWB Antennas

    Starting Point: Monopole Square Planar Antenna

    Design Methodology for Planar Structures

    Simulation Results Based on the Design Methodology for Planar Structures

    Variation of Beveling Angle

    Variation of the Radiator Width

    Variation of the Feeder Width

    Variation of the Height between the Ground Plane and the Radiator

    Reduction of Variations in the Radiation Pattern

    Design of Planarized UWB Antennas

    General Concepts

    Preliminary Square Radiator

    Tuning of a Planarized Rectangular Antenna for UWB

    Simulation Results

    Measurement Results

    Scaling Method to Achieve other Bandwidths


    Design of Directional Planar and Volumetric UWB Antennas

    Introduction to Directional UWB Antennas

    Vivaldi Antenna

    Leaf Shape Antenna

    TEM Horn Antenna

    Quasi-Yagi Antenna

    Design of a Directive Rectangular Planar Monopole

    Design Methodology for a UWB Directive Rectangular PMA

    Example of Design of the UWB Directive Rectangular PMA

    Mechanical Refinement of the Antenna Structure

    Use of a Reflector to Increase the Antenna Directivity

    Modification of the Ground Plane to Improve the Antenna Directivity

    Design of Planar Directional UWB Antenna for Any Desired Operational Bandwidth

    Basic Structure

    Transformation Process into Directional Radiation Pattern

    Application of the Solid-Planar Correspondence Principle

    Design Equation

    Experimental Results

    Comparison of Different Directive UWB Antennas


    Current Tendencies and Some Unresolved Problems

    UWB Antennas Today

    Impedance Matching, Phase Linearity and Radiation Pattern

    Directional UWB Antennas

    UWB Antenna Arrays


    Body Area Networks

    Radar: Medical Imaging and Others

    USB Dongle and Access Point

    Computational Aspects

    Wider and Wider Bandwidths


    Numerical Methods for Electromagnetics

    Maxwell’s Equations

    Basic Field Laws

    Scalar and Vector Potentials

    Wave Equations

    Essence of the Physically-Sized Antennas Problem

    Boundary Value Conditions

    Normal Components

    Tangential Components

    Boundary Conditions and Unique Solution to the Maxwell’s Equations

    Radiation Condition

    Current Distribution on Antennas

    Numerical Methods

    Continuous Equations in a Finite Computational Environment

    Computational Domain and Meshing

    Classification of the Methods

    Finite Differences Method

    Finite Element Method (FEM)

    Method of Moments (MoM)

    Software Available





    Nabla: The Differential Operator

    Rectangular Coordinates

    Cylindrical Coordinates

    Spherical Coordinates

    Some Concepts Related to Differential Equations



    Differential Equation Systems

    Initial and Boundary Value Conditions

    Existence and Uniqueness

    Poisson and Laplace Equations

    Poisson’s Equation

    Laplace’s Equation



    Giselle M. Galvan-Tejada received her B.Sc in communications and electronics engineering from the National Polytechnic Institute (IPN), Mexico City, Mexico; her M.Sc in electrical engineering from the Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute (CINVESTAV-IPN); and her Ph.D in electronics and telecommunications engineering from the University of Bradford, UK. Currently, she is working in the Communications Section of the Department of Electrical Engineering of the CINVESTAV-IPN as a lecturer and full-time researcher. She is a member of the IEEE and the National Council of Researchers of Mexico. Her research interests include radiocommunication systems, wireless sensor networks, radio propagation, antenna array technology, ultra wideband antennas, WiMAX, space division multiple access, and techniques to make efficient use of the spectrum.

    Marco Antonio Peyrot-Solis received his B.Sc in naval sciences engineering from the Mexican Naval Academy, Antón Lizardo, Veracruz; his M.Sc in electrical engineering from the United States Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California; and his Ph.D in electrical engineering from the Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute (CINVESTAV-IPN), Mexico City, Mexico. Currently, he is working for the Mexican Navy Research Institute (INIDETAM), Veracruz, Mexico, and his research interests include ultra wideband antennas and electromagnetic compatibility.

    Hildeberto Jardon-Aguilar received his B.Sc in electrical engineering from the School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering of the National Polytechnic Institute (ESIME-IPN), Mexico City, Mexico, and his Ph.D in radio systems from the Moscow Technical University of Communications and Informatics, Russia. He is currently a full professor at the Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute (CINVESTAV-IPN), Mexico City, Mexico. His research interests include analysis of nonlinearities in radio-frequency and microwave circuits, electromagnetic compatibility, antennas, and photonic systems. He is the author of five books and more than 100 technical papers published in journals and symposiums.

    "The topic of ultra wideband antennas continues to be of vital interest to the commercial and defense communities. The ever-increasing demand for wider bandwidths, while retaining compact size, will assure that books on this topic will continue to proliferate. I highly recommend that Ultra Wideband Antennas: Design, Methodologies, and Performance be a critical adjunct to every antenna designer's library."
    —Frank B. Gross, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, USA

    "This is an outstanding reference with practical design formulas for a wide variety of useful ultra wideband (UWB) elements. This guidance helps an antenna engineer implement a near-optimal design quickly, minimizing the time required to tweak or adjust the design. This work should be on the shelf of anyone interested in rapid implementation of UWB and broadband antenna designs."
    —Hans G. Schantz, Q-Track Corporation, Huntsville, Alabama, USA

    "... provides a comprehensive treatment of the theory and design of UWB antennas."
    Microwave Journal, August 2015

    "... perfect for entry-level UWB antenna designers as well as UWB equipment designers and operators."
    IEEE Microwave Magazine, March 2016

    “Many guidelines on the fundamentals of UWB antennas are presented, giving the reader a very good understanding of UWB antenna theory.”
    IEEE Electrical Insulation, September/October 2016