Understanding Hydrological Processes in an Ungauged Catchment in sub-Saharan Africa : UNESCO-IHE PhD Thesis book cover
1st Edition

Understanding Hydrological Processes in an Ungauged Catchment in sub-Saharan Africa

ISBN 9780415549561
Published March 18, 2009 by CRC Press
144 Pages 40 Color Illustrations

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Book Description

Ungauged catchments can be found in many parts of the world, but particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Information collected in a gauged catchment and its regionalisation to ungauged areas is crucial for water resources assessment. Especially farmers in semi-arid zones are in need of such information. Inter and Intra-seasonal rainfall variability is large in these areas, and farmers depend more and more on additional surface and groundwater resources for their crop production. As a result, understanding the key-hydrological processes, and determination of the frequencies and magnitudes of stream flows, is very important for local food production. This is particularly true for the ungauged Makanya catchment in Tanzania, which is the subject of this study.

Table of Contents

List of Symbols
List of Acronyms

Chapter 1 Introduction 
1.1 Background                                                                                     
1.2 Impact of Land Use and Management                                                   
1.3 Hydrological Process Understanding                                                     
1.4 Hydrological Modelling                                                                     
1.5 Objectives                                                                                      

Chapter 2 Study Area 11
2.1 Pangani River Basin                                                                         
2.2 South Pare Mountains                                                                    
2.2.1 Geology
2.2.2 Rainfall
2.2.3 Agricultural water use
2.2.4 Runoff

Chapter 3 Weather and Climate
3.1 Rainfall                                                                                         
3.2 Spatial Rainfall Variability                                                                
3.3 Potential Evaporation                                                                       
3.4 Potential Transpiration versus Rainfall                                                 

Chapter 4 Investigation of Flow Systems 
4.1 Hydrochemical Mapping                                                                    
4.1.1 Water Quality of Springs
4.1.2 Comparison of Dry versus Wet Conditions
4.2 Geophysical Investigations                                                                 
4.2.1 Site I: Highlands
4.2.2 Site II: Kilenga Spring
4.2.3 Site III: Valley Cross Section
4.2.4 Site IV: Stream Bed
4.2.5 Auger Wells
4.3 Spring Types                                                                                 
4.4 Synthesis: Groundwater Flow Systems in the Makanya Catchment            
4.5 Base flow fluctuations                                                                      
4.5.1 Observations
4.6 Conclusion                                                                                    

Chapter 5 Investigation of Hydrological Events 
5.1 Hydrograph Separation using Hydrochemical Tracers                              
5.1.1 9 November Event
5.1.2 5 December Event
5.1.3 Discussion
5.2 Spatial Rainfall Variability and Runoff Response during an Extreme Event 
5.2.1 Rainfall
5.2.2 Runoff
5.2.3 Water Quality
5.2.4 Conclusions

Chapter 6 Hydrological Modelling
6.1 Observations                                                                                   
6.2 Methodology                                                                                  
6.3 Model Description                                                                           
6.4 Optimisation                                                                                  
6.5 Results                                                                                         
6.6 Conclusions                                                                                   

Chapter 7 Sharing Water
7.1 Water Allocation Practices                                                                
7.2 agricultural Water Users in Makanya Catchment                                   
7.2.1 Manoo Furrow System
7.2.2 Makanya Spate irrigation System
7.3 Water Sharing between Users of Adjacent Furrows                              
7.4 Water Allocation between Neighbouring Villages                                 
7.4.1 Agreement between Ndolwa and Bangalala
7.4.2 Agreement between Vudee and Bangalala
7.5 Water Sharing between Distant Villages                                             
7.6 Discussion and Concluding Remarks                                                 

Chapter 8 Syntheses and Conclusions 
8.1 Farming Adaptation to Climatological, Hydrological and Bio physical Constraints                                                                                          1
8.2 Hydrological Process Understanding and Modelling                              
8.3 Impact of farming activities on hydrology                                         

About the Author  

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Marloes Mul received her MSc in Civil Engineering from Delft University in 2007. Between 2004 and 2007 she worked in Africa (Zimbabwe, Tanzania) on her PhD for UNESCO-IHE. As of January 2008 Marloes returned to UNESCO-IHE in The Netherlands as lecturer Water Resources Management, where she is now coordinating the MSc programme Water Management.