1st Edition

Understanding Research Methods
An Overview of the Essentials

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ISBN 9781884585029
Published November 1, 1996 by Routledge
136 Pages

USD $24.95

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Book Description

• Designed for students who are getting lost in the details of research methods and not getting the big picture, this short book provides an overview of the essential concepts traditionally covered in a research methods class.

•Lively examples on contemporary topics stimulate students’ interest and show the relevance of research methods to their everyday lives.

•Divided into short sections, this book makes it easy for you to give customized assignments. Assign only the sections your students need.

•Shows students how to interpret statistics without computations.

•Factual Questions at the end of each section allow students to check their comprehension.

•Questions for Discussion stimulate classroom dialogue.

Table of Contents

Part A Introduction to Research Methods
 1. Introduction to Empirical Research
 2. Experimental versus Nonexperimental Studies
 3. Experimental versus Causal-Comparative Studies
 4. Types of Nonexperimental Research
 5. Variables in Nonexperimental Studies
 6. Variables in Experimental Studies
 7. Research Hypotheses, Purposes, and Questions
 8. Operational Definitions of Variables
 9. Quantitative versus Qualitative Research: I
 10. Quantitative versus Qualitative Research: II
 11. Program Evaluation
 12. Ethical Considerations in Research
 13. The Role of Theory in Research

Part B Reviewing Literature
 14. Reasons for Reviewing Literature
 15. Locating Literature Electronically
 16. Organizing a Literature Review
 17. Preparing to Write a Critical Review
 18. Creating a Synthesis

 Part C In-Text Citations and Reference Lists
 19. Introduction to Style Guides
 20. In-Text Citations: ASA Style
 21. Reference Lists: ASA Style
 22. In-Text Citations: APA Style
 23. Reference Lists: APA Style

 Part D Sampling
 24. Biased and Unbiased Sampling
 25. Simple Random and Systematic Sampling
 26. Stratified Random Sampling
 27. Other Methods of Sampling
 28. Sampling and Demographics
 29. Introduction to Sample Size
 30. A Closer Look at Sample Size

Part E Measurement
 31. Introduction to Validity
 32. Judgmental Validity
 33. Empirical Validity
 34. Judgmental-Empirical Validity
 35. Reliability and Its Relationship to Validity
 36. Measures of Reliability
 37. Internal Consistency and Reliability
 38. Norm- and Criterion-Referenced Tests
 39. Measures of Optimum Performance
 40. Measures of Typical Performance

Part F Experimental Design
 41. True Experimental Designs
 42. Threats to Internal Validity
 43. Threats to External Validity
 44. Preexperimental Designs
 45. Quasi-Experimental Designs
 46. Confounding in Experiments

 Part G Understanding Statistics
 47. Descriptive and Inferential Statistics
 48. Introduction to the Null Hypothesis
 49. Scales of Measurement
 50. Descriptions of Nominal Data
 51. Introduction to the Chi-Square Test
 52. A Closer Look at the Chi-Square Test
 53. Shapes of Distributions
 54. The Mean, Median, and Mode
 55. The Mean and Standard Deviation
 56. The Median and Interquartile Range
 57. The Pearson Correlation Coefficient
 58. The t Test
 59. One-Way Analysis of Variance
 60. Two-Way Analysis of Variance
 61. Practical Significance of Results

 Part H Effect Size and Meta-Analysis
 62. Introduction to Effect Size (d)
 63. Interpretation of Effect Size (d)
 64. Effect Size and Correlation (r)
 65. Introduction to Meta-Analysis
 66. Meta-Analysis and Effect Size
 67. Meta-Analysis: Strengths and Weaknesses

Part I Qualitative Research
 68. Sampling in Qualitative Research: I
 69. Sampling in Qualitative Research: II
 70. Measurement in Qualitative Research: I
 71. Measurement in Qualitative Research: II
 72. Quality Control in Qualitative Research
 73. Grounded Theory for Data Analysis
 74. Consensual Qualitative Research: Analysis

 Part J Preparing Research Reports
 75. The Structure of a Research Report
 76. Writing Abstracts
 77. Introduction and Literature Review
 78. Describing Participants
 79. Describing Measures
 80. Reporting Research Results
 81. Writing the Discussion
 82. Preparing Theses and Dissertations

 A. Electronic Databases for Locating Literature
 B. Electronic Sources of Statistical Information
 C. Excerpts from Literature Reviews
 D. A Closer Look at the Standard Deviation
 E. A Closer Look at Effect Size
 F. Outline of Question Route for a Focus Group Study
 G. Sample Abstracts of Research Reports
 H. Sample Description of Qualitative Data Analysis
 I. A Closer Look at Abbreviated Page Numbers in ASA Style

 1. Table of Random Numbers
 2. Table of Recommended Sample Sizes


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