As the Indian economy integrates into global circuits of production, exchange and accumulation, the burdens of adjustment are shared unequally by different sectors, classes and regions. This study unravels the livelihood strategies and living conditions of labour in the tea gardens of Assam. The tea sector has been undergoing a crisis since the 1990s, with stagnant production, decline in exports, and closures of many tea gardens leading to large-scale retrenchments in the labour force.
Based on a detailed analysis of secondary data and primary field research, the study examines the extent, types and implications of inter-generational occupational mobility (or immobility) among tea garden labourers in Assam. In the process, it reflects on how even a sector that had brought capital and labour from outside and contributed significantly to the country’s export earnings failed to create dynamic growth linkages within the local economy. The experience of the labour force in the Assam tea sector, the authors argue, is important for making sense not only of the development dynamics of the region, but of the contradictory ways in which forces of globalisation and neo-liberal reforms have been reshaping the worlds of labourers in the margins.
The book will be of interest to students and scholars of labour studies, development studies, management studies, and studies of north-east India, as well as to policy-makers and those in the tea industry.
Acknowledgements. List of Tables 1. Introduction 2. Tea Sector in Assam in a Comparative Perspective 3. Employment Characteristics of Tea Labour 4. Occupational Mobility among Tea Garden Labourers 5. Causes and Implications of Occupational Mobility 6. Conclusion. Appendix. Bibliography. About the Authors. Index
The uniquely diverse landscapes, societies and cultures of north eastern India, forged through complex bio-geographic and socio-political forces, are now facing rapid transition. Yet, popular and academic perceptions tend to be limited primarily to the various conflicts in the region. This series, therefore, aims to broaden the focus to the processes and practices that have shaped, and are shaping, the people’s identities, outlook, institutions and economy. Eschewing the homogenising term ‘North East’, which was imposed on the region in a particular political context half a century ago, the series title refers to the ‘north eastern region’ to more accurately reflect its heterogeneity and the varied issues confronting its diverse peoples. The series will encompass a broad rubric of themes related to culture, social relations, human and economic development, the environment, technology, governance and juridical systems.
Seeking to explore how the ‘mainstream’ and the ‘margins’ impact each other, the series will foreground both historical and contemporary research on the north eastern region including the Eastern Himalaya, the adjoining hills and valleys, the states of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura. It will publish original, reflective studies that draw upon different disciplines and approaches, and combine empirical and theoretical insights. The monographs and the occasional edited volume are intended to make scholarship accessible for a wide spectrum of general readers and to help deepen the understanding of academics, policy-makers and practitioners.